John McGrain

Retired Baltimore County Historian John McGrain is both tireless and infinitely knowledgeable. He compiled this bibliography of newspaper articles on Sparrows Point for the project.

    Bill: I think we have  a good variety of citations.  The bibliography reached 49 pages. It is attached. Possibly someone else has a collection of clippings but I have gathered matter at Goucher, Towson Library, and Maryland Historical Society.

-- John McGrain  (6/2007)

    Bill: There are four bulging file folders of clippings in the Baltimore County Office of Planning; I have a few others.  Some clippings were on construction paper in the MHS vertical file. Yes, put it on your web site--it was fun idea.  Maybe other people will contribute citations.

-- John McGrain  (6/17/2007)

     Most of the articles in his collection are only in hard copy but we hope at some point to be able to put them up on line.

The articles, beginning with the first notice in 1887 of the intended construction of “Steelton,” as the Sparrows Point plant was originally called, are enormously interesting, especially the reports of industrial accidents and explosions at the facility. One headline-- Anonymous, “Local Items [Frank Braxton, colored, killed by a hoisting boom],” Baltimore County Union, November 17, 1888, p. 3, col. 1.—shows the racial situation existed at The Point from the earliest days.

Among John’s other publications are:

From Pig Iron to Cotton Duck: A History of Manufacturing Villages in Baltimore County. Volume I (1985)

Then and Now-Susquehanna Bridges

Subject of Historical Society Bulletin (The Historical Association of Harford County) March 26, 2003

The Treasure of Loch Raven (a history of mills in the area)          

Sparrows Point Bibliography  Compiled by John McGrain, 2007

 (in chronological order)

Anonymous, “A Large Industry to be Started [Sparrows Point].” Sun, March 19, 1887.

Anonymous, “A Large Steel Works to Be Erected,” Baltimore County Union, Towson, Md., April 2, 1887.

Anonymous, “The Baltimore County Steel Works,” Baltimore County Union, Towson, Md., April 9, 1887.

Anonymous, “Steel Works at Tivoli,” Sun, April 23, 1887.

Baltimore County Deeds, William Fitzell and Mary A. Fitzell-to-Luther S. Bent, conveyance of Sparrows Point Farm [mention of Old Road Bay and Block House Cove], May 2, 1887, Liber JWS 160:10, County Courts Building, Towson, Md.

Anonymous, “Building of Sparrows Point,” Sun, May 20, 1887.

Anonymous, “Steelton in Maryland [long description of Sparrows Point project],” Sun, September 2, 1887.

Anonymous, “The Steelton That Is to Be [building the Sparrows Point works],” Maryland Journal, Towson, Md., December 24, 1887.

Anonymous, “To Sparrows Point.  The Rights of Way for the New Railroad Are Nearly All Secured [reports double tracking, junction with two railroads near Bay view Station],” American, February 4, 1888, p. 8.

Anonymous, “A Flourishing Suburb,” Sun, February, 14, 1888.

Anonymous, “The Rapid Development of Steelton,” Sun, April 9, 1888.

Anonymous, “School Dedication at Steelton,” Sun, April 14, 1888.

Anonymous, “Horse Play at Steelton [workmen stripped a Mr. Reynolds and painted him with gas-tar],” Maryland Journal, Towson, Md., June 23, 1888.

Anonymous, “How Workmen Live at Steelton,” Sun, October 15, 1888.

Anonymous, “Local Items [Frank Braxton, colored, killed by a hoisting boom],” Baltimore County Union, November 17, 1888, p. 3, col. 1.

Anonymous, “How Steelton Grows,” American, February 2, 1889.

Anonymous, “News of the Railroads.  . . . The Sparrows Point Line [to be opened today],” Sun, February 11, 1889, Supplement, p 1.

Anonymous, “A New Road Is Opened.  Running of Rails Now to Sparrows Point. Steelton Is Brought into Closer Relations with the City. – The Track Is Well Laid, and Everything Runs Smoothly – The Reading and the Maryland Central,” American, February 12, 1889.

Anonymous, “Churches Incorporated [Sparrows Point Methodist Episcopal Church and Patapsco Station Methodist Episcopal Church],” Baltimore County Democrat, February 7, 1889.

Anonymous, “Where Ships Are Built,” American, February 10,  1889.

Anonymous, “A New Road is Opened [rail link to Sparrows Point],” American, February 12, 1889.

Anonymous, “M. E. Church Dedication [opened February 22 in company town],” Baltimore County Union, February 23, 1889.

Anonymous, “The Sparrows Point Furnaces,” Iron Age, 43 (June 13, 1889): 890.

Anonymous, “Over 700,000 Logs in the Chesapeake [escaped timber from Susquehanna rafts scattered over eight counties by the Johnstown Flood.  Williamsport & Chesapeake Lumber Company to buy land at Steelton on Patapsco to mill the timber],” Maryland Journal, Towson, Md., November 9, 1889, quoted form Baltimore American, of October 22.

Anonymous, “Foundations of a Manufacturing Town [Sparrows Point],” Sun, November 8, 1889.

Anonymous, “Another Corner-Stone [St. Matthews P. E. Church for company town],” Sun, November 8, 1889.

Anonymous, “The Growth of Steelton [Sparrows Point],” Maryland Journal, Towson, Md., February 15, 1890.

Anonymous, “Local Short-Stops [visit of Mayor Davidson].” Baltimore County Democrat, April 12, 1890.

Anonymous, “A Mechanic’s Narrow Escape [C. T. Wherrett in pattern shop almost injured by planning machine running at 1200 rpm],” Baltimore County Democrat, April 12, 1890.

Anonymous, “Sparrow’s Point, 12th District [ref to new colored M. E. Church],” Baltimore County Democrat, May 3, 1890, quoting the Sparrow’s Point Times.

Anonymous, “Phoenix, 10th District [excursion to steel plant],” Baltimore County Democrat, May 10, 1890.

Anonymous, “Like a Miracle, The Great Growth of Steelton.  In Only Two Years, A Great Celebration Today,” American, May 30, 1890.

Sparrows Point Times [only known copy], Volume 1, No. 15, May 30, 1890, Enoch Pratt Free Library, Baltimore.

Anonymous, “Pennsylvania Steel Co.,” Maryland Journal, Towson, Md., June 7, 1890.

Anonymous, “St. Luke’s of Steelton [with drawing of Catholic church in company town],” American, June 9, 1890.

Anonymous, “Our Ship-Building Boom.  Contracts for Steamers to Be Built at Steelton,” American, September 13, 1890.

Anonymous, “Excursion of the Iron and Steel Men [to Sparrows Point],” Sun, October 27, 1890.

Anonymous, “Iron and Steel Men, Foreign Visitors Inspecting Sparrows Point Works, “ Sun, October 28, 1890.

Anonymous, “Iron and Steel Men at Sparrows Point [delegates of Iron & Steel Convention at Washington],” Baltimore County Democrat, November 1, 1890.

Anonymous, “Local Short-Stops [one hundred cyclists welcomed into steel plant premises],” Baltimore County Democrat, November 1, 1890, p. 3, col. 1.

Anonymous, [re cyclists riding through plant to Point Hotel], Baltimore County Democrat, November 11, 1890.

Anonymous, “Sparrow [sic] Point News [launching of steam tug Penwood; B Furnace in operation and C-Furnace started],” Maryland Journal, Towson, Md., June 6, 1891.

Anonymous, “Local Short-Stops [census of plant area lists gain of 1,178],” Baltimore County Democrat, June 6, 1891.

Anonymous, “What Is Going On at Sparrows Point [construction of boat house and addition to school],” Sun, August 1, 1891.

Anonymous, “Bessemer Steel.  First Produced in Maryland and Blown at Sparrows Point [on August 1].  Beginning Another Great Industry. How the Works Are Constructed and Managed—Immense Buildings—The Preliminary Text—Who Were Present—Boilers of 15,000 Horse Power,” Sun, August 3, 1891 [long account].

Anonymous, “Bessemer Steel Made in Maryland,” Manufacturer’s Record, 10 (August 8, 1891): 11.

Anonymous, “Four Men Killed. Explosion of Gas in a Furnace at Sparrow’s Point [B Furnace was being blown out for repairs; with line drawing of the bottom of the furnace],” Sun, December 8, 1891.

Anonymous, “Blown into Eternity.  Terrible Accident at Sparrows Point Iron Works [explosion at Furnace B],” American, December 8, 1891.

Anonymous, “Explosion of Furnace B at Sparrows Pont,” Maryland Journal, Towson, Md., December 12, 1891.

Anonymous, “Another Explosion at Sparrows Point [gasoline lamp in engine room of tug Penwood under construction,” Sun, December 30, 1891.

“A  Trip Through the Maryland Steel Co. Works,” 1892 photo album, folio, 2 vol., Maryland Historical Society library, also the Historical Society of Baltimore County, and the National Canal Museum library, Easton, Pa.

Anonymous, “Local Short-Stops [explosion of gasoline lamp in tugboat Penwood; four men injured],” Baltimore County Democrat, January 2, 1892.

Anonymous, “Local Short-Stops [cornerstone of Presbyterian Church laid],” Baltimore County Democrat, January 16, 1892.

Anonymous, “Shooting Affray [Dugan the keeper of tool shop shot McDowell over unreturned items],” Maryland Journal, Towson, Md., May 28, 1892.

Anonymous, “Sparrow’s Point Marine Work [enlarging boiler shop, electric crane installed, 2 steamers and 3 tugs under way],” Baltimore County Democrat, Towson, Md.,  July 16, 1892.

Anonymous, “The Sparrows Point School,” Baltimore County Democrat, Towson. Md., August 6, 1892.

Anonymous, “Harbor Notes [steamer Czarina sailed from Sparrows Point with steel rails for Port Tampa, Florida],” Sun, August 25, 1892.

Anonymous, “Steel Works Progress [the first time the public was invited to Sparrows Point, launching of the Alabama],” American, October 2, 1892.

Bureau of Industrial Statistics, Report for 1890-91 (Baltimore 1893), [incl. two pages on living conditions, success of anti-alcohol policy[, p. 124.

Maryland, Its Resources, Industries and Institutions [account of start-up and first Bessemer steel] (Baltimore, 1893, pp. 110-11, 138.

A, B. Howard, Maryland Bureau of Industrial Statistics & Information Report 1893 (Baltimore 1893), p. 32 [re 2,000 men employed].

Anonymous, “Landing Krupp’s Exhibit.  Work Going on Day and Night at Sparrows Point,” New York Times, March 24, 1893, p. 8.

Anonymous, “Now for the Big Gun.  It Will Be Lifted out of the Longuiel Today.  The Mammoth Shears Have Been Satisfactorily Tested, and Will Hoist the Great Weight with Safety – All the Rest of the Cargo Has Been Discharged – How the Machine Works.  The Hamburg Shears,” American, April 7, 1893, with line drawing.

Anonymous, “Now on Terra Firma.  Krupp’s Monster Hauled Ashore in Safety.  The Great Feat of Lifting the Gun from the Longueill’s Hold Accomplished without the Slightest Mishap.   The Stars and Stripes Nailed to the Top of the Shears Mid the Cheers of a Multitude,” American, April 8, 1893, with line drawing.

Anonymous, “Lifting the 124 Ton Krupp Gun,” Seaboard, 6 (April 13, 1893).

Anonymous, “At Sparrows Point [unloading of 124-ton Krupp gun for World’s Fair in Chicago],” Maryland Journal, Towson, Md., March 25, 1893.

Anonymous, “The Cloud That Hangs O’er Sparrow’s Point,” Baltimore Sunday Herald, April 9, 1893.

Anonymous, “Furnace D Blown,” Baltimore Morning Herald, April 16, 1893.

Anonymous, “Sparrows Point at World’s Fair [President Wood of Maryland Steel Company to exhibit at Chicago Columbian Exposition[,” Sun, August 29, 1894.

Anonymous, “Sparrows Point News [100 men dismissed],” Maryland Journal, Towson, Md., January 25, 1896.

Anonymous, “Sparrows Point News [only part of the works operating],” Maryland Journal, Towson, Md., February 8, 1896.

Anonymous, “Sparrows Pint News [mentions of free library],” Maryland Journal, Towson, Md., February 15, 22, 1896.

Anonymous, “Iron Ore from Nova Scotia [shortage of Cuban Juruaga ore due to revolution],” Maryland Journal, Towson, Md., May 16, 1896.

Anonymous, “Furnace A at Sparrows Point to Resume Operations,” Argus, Catonsville, Md., January 2, 1897.

Anonymous, “The Free Library at Sparrows Point,” Maryland Journal, Towson, Md., April 11, 1896.

Anonymous, “Fun and Fireworks.  How the Fourth Was Spent in Baltimore and Vicinity [flag presented to Maryland Steel Company by workers],” Sun, July 6, 1896, p. 6.

Anonymous, “Wondrous Steel Plant,” American, September 16, 1897.

Anonymous, “The Maryland Steel Company: The Works at Sparrows Point,” Iron Age, December 9, 1897.

Laws of Maryland, Acts of 1898, Chapter 281, “An Act to Grant Certain Additional Powers and Privileges to the Baltimore, Middle River, and Sparrows’ Point Railroad (Archives of Md., 482:836).

Anonymous, “Steel Rails for Russia [from Sparrows Point],” Maryland Journal, Towson, Md., April 16, 1898.

Anonymous, “Sparrows Point Volunteers.  Dr. Woodward Organizing a Company of Infantry for the War,” Baltimore News, April 28, 1898.

Anonymous, “Accidentally Killed at Sparrows Point [James Wollard electrocuted by arc lamp],” Maryland Journal, Towson Md., July 23, 1898.

Anonymous, “”Lutheran Church Dedication [St. John’s Lutheran Church in  company town],”Maryland Journal, Towson, Md., July 15, 1899.

Eighth Annual Report of Bureau of Industrial Statistics for 1899 (Baltimore, 1900), incl., “Strike at Steelton, a pay cut, and visit of John B. Armsworthy, president of Oriole Lodge of Boiler Makers and Iron-Ship Builders of America.” p. 4.

Anonymous, “Sparrows point News [engine house burned],” Maryland Journal, Towson, Md., January 13, 1900.

Anonymous, “The Boys’ Strike at Sparrows Point,” Sun, January 19, 1900.

Anonymous, “New Floating Dock for the Government [built at Sparrows Point, with line drawing],” American, June 21, 1900.

Anonymous, “Busy Times at Sparrows Point [in marine department],” American, June 25, 1900.

Anonymous, “Improvements at Sparrows Point [need for more dwellings],” American, January 12, 1901.

Anonymous, “Killed at Sparrows Point [William H. Goode struck by falling rail],” Maryland Journal, Towson, Md., February 2, 1901.

Anonymous, “Government Floating Drydock Built at Sparrows Point [with line drawing],” Sun, August 23, 1901.

Anonymous, “Sketch of Sparrows Point—From a Farm It Has Grown in a Few Years Into a Great Manufacturing Centre,” Baltimore County Union, Towson, Md., March 8, 1902.

Anonymous, “Great Derrick at Sparrows Point [photo of crane capable of lifting 10 tons 70 feet high],” American, June 22, 1902.

Anonymous, “Meeting of the Baltimore County School Board [contract awarded to Daniel Harding for a schoolhouse],” Maryland Journal, Towson, Md., October 25, 1902.

Anonymous, “A $300,000 Fire at Sparrows Point [on ship Missouri under construction],” Maryland Journal, Towson, Md., October 25, 1902.

Anonymous, “Public School Affairs [school opened; architects were Owens & Sisco],” Maryland Journal, Towson, Md., November 21, 1903.

Anonymous, “Snap Shots at the News [cornerstone of St. Matthews P. E. Church],” Baltimore County Democrat, Towson, Md., August 6, 1904.

Anonymous, “Slaughter House at Sparrows Point Destroyed by Fire,” Maryland Journal, Towson, Md., March 11, 1905.

Anonymous, “Killed at Sparrows Point [Harry A. Wagner caught in gearing of stationary engine],” Maryland Journal, Towson. Md., March 25, 1905.

Edward Jewett Wheeler, “Towing a Giant Dry Dock 14,000 Miles,” Current Literature, 9 (February, 1906)” 182-183, incl. photo.

Anonymous, “Sparrows Point and Vicinity [Mr. A. I. Findley, one of the editors of Iron Age, visited the Point],” Sun, February 3, 1906, p. 9.

D. A. Wiley, “The Story of the Maryland Steel Company at Sparrows Point,” Cassiers Magazine, 29 (March 1906): 355-369.

Anonymous, “Local Items [pier extension],” Baltimore County Union, Towson, Md., April 28, 1906, p. 3, col. 1. 

Anonymous, “To Clean Big Blast Furnace,” Sun, July 28, 1906.

Anonymous, “Some Interesting Facts About a Blast Furnace,” Baltimore County Union, Towson, Md., August 4, 1906.

Anonymous, “No Mosquito Pest at Sparrows Point [re sewer system],” Baltimore County Union, Towson, Md.,  September 1, 1906.

Anonymous, “Life at Sparrows Point [with line drawing of Bessemer steel mill],” Sun, September 23, 1906, Enoch Pratt Free Library.

Anonymous, “Life at Sparrows Point Is Simple and Pleasant.  The Company Does All the Worrying—Saloons and Politics Are Barred,” Sun, October 21, 1906.

Sven Anderson, Floating Drydocks (Maryland Steel Company: Sparrows Point, Md, 1907).

Harry Huse Campbell, The Manufacture and Properties of Iron and Steel (Hill Publications: New York, 1907), p. 485. 

Anonymous, “To Increase the Sparrows Point Plant,” Baltimore County Union, Towson, Md., April 18, 1908.

Anonymous, “Fires Burn Again at Steel Rail Mills,” Baltimore News, October 5,  1908.

John H. K. Shannahan, Jr., “Sparrows Points History Goes Back to 1652,” Sun, December 20, 1908, p. 16.

Anonymous, “Steel Mills Running.  Rails Being Rapidly Turned Out at Sparrows Point,” Sun, January 25, 1909.

Anonymous, “Sudden Death of R. K. Wood,” American, May 17, 1909.

Anonymous, “Sparrows Point Mammoth Steel Stack Swung Into Place.  Site of the Open Hearth Furnace of Sparrows Point [photo of 100-foot, 26-ton stack].” Sun, September 28, 1909, p. 9.

Anonymous, “To Sparrows Point Firemen [poem celebrating visit to Point],” Baltimore County Democrat, October 30, 1909.

Anonymous, “Neighborhood News . .  . Sparrows Point [ref to 20th anniversary of first Cuban ore shipment on steamer Earnford],” Baltimore County Union, Towson, Md.,   February 12, 1910.

Anonymous, “Sparrows Point and Vicinity [Maryland Steel acquired two new locomotives for moving coal, coke, ore, and stone, also finished rails.  W. W. Lewis appointed clerk of new open hearth],” Sun, February 14, 1910.

Anonymous, “Sparrows Point [gas producers for new open hearth mill placed in service],” Baltimore County Union, Towson, Md., February 26, 1910.

Anonymous, “Sparrows Point [new open hearth furnace was placed in service  on March 2; J. A. Durfee of Alabama was in charge],” Baltimore County Union, Towson, Md.,  March 12, 1910.

Anonymous, “Local Item [distribution of garden plants to residents],” Baltimore County Union, Towson, Md., May 21, 1910.

Joseph T. Singewald, Jr.,  Report on the Iron ores of Maryland (Johns Hopkins University press: Baltimore, 1911), pp. 156-158.

John H. K. Shannahan, “A Maryland Spotless Town [Sparrows Point company housing],” Sun, February 12, 1911.

Anonymous, “Biography of a Rail,” Sun, March 12, 1911.

John H. K. Shannahan, Jr., “This Is How They Build a Ship,” Sun, April 28, 1911, Part 4.

Wilfred Harvey Schoff and Guy Carleton Whidden, Pennsylvania and Its Manifold Activities (Beck Engraving Company: Philadelphia, 1912), p. 180.

Anonymous, “Chilean Iron Ore for Bethlehem,” Iron Age, January 25, 1913.

Anonymous, “The Bethlehem Steel Company’s Tofo Mines,” Iron Age, June 11, 1914.

U. S. Supreme Court, Maryland Steel Company o Baltimore County, Appt., v. United States, 235 US 461, January 5, 1915.

“Bethlehem Steel Company,” in Souvenir Book of the Borough of South Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, October 3-9, 1915.

Arundel Cotter, The Story of Bethlehem Steel (The Moody Magazine and Book Company: New York, 1916).

Anonymous, “Charles M. Schwab—The American Krupp,” Forum, August 1916.

T. Scott Offutt & Logi Bonnet, Baltimore County, Its History, Progress & Opportunities (Towson, Md., 1916), incl. photo of Bessemer vessel, mention of first pig iron made on October 23, 1889.

Frederick W. Wood Papers, 1887-1916, Hagely Museum and Library, WIlimingto, Delaware.

Anonymous, “Bethlehem Acquires Pennsylvania Steel Co.,” Iron Age, February 24, 1916.

Anonymous, “Sparrows Point [boom expected after purchase of Maryland Steel by Bethlehem],” Jeffersonian, Towson, Md., May 6, 1916.

Anonymous, “Bright Prospects Ahead.  Industries Looming in Baltimore County—Great Demand for More Houses [ref to Charles M. Schwab’s dinner in honor of Beth Steel’s purchase of works],” Jeffersonian, Towson, Md., November 25, 1916.

Lillian Emory, “Sparrows Point, an Industrial Town,” in Isobel Davidson, ed.,  Real Stories from Baltimore County History (Warrick & Company: Baltimore, 1917), pp. 203-210.

Anonymous, “Bethlehem’s Tin-Plate Plant,” Iron Age, April 5, 1917.

Anonymous, “Largest in Country, Shipyard at Sparrows Point to Be Gigantic--$4,500,000 Being Spent,” Jeffersonian, Towson, Md., August 25, 1917.

Anonymous, “New City for Workers.  Admiral Bowles Outlines Project for  Sparrows Point Shipyard.  Would Construct 1500 Houses [Emergency Fleet Corporation plans the still nameless Dundalk],” Sun, December 20, 1917.

Anonymous, “New Commander at Sparrows Point,” Sun, April 27, 1918.

Anonymous, “Foundations of Future Houses Being Laid as Town Site Is Being Completed [Dundalk],” Evening Sun, July 11, 1918.

Anonymous, “Women Workers in Steel Plant.  Some in Electrical Shop and Others Will Be Trained by Steel Company,” Sun, July 14, 1918.

Anonymous, “Big Plant to Expand, Sparrows Point Will Enlarge to Meet War Demand for Steel Products,” Jeffersonian, Towson, Md., July 20, 1918.

Anonymous, “St. Helena [housing for Bethlehem Steel employees nearing completion],” Jeffersonian, Towson, Md., September 21, 1918, p. 8.

Anonymous, “Bethlehem Plans Vast.  Will Spend $20,000,000 at Sparrows Point This Year,” Sun, March 26, 1919.

Anonymous, “Dundalk to Be Sold [269 houses and ‘great cafeteria’],” Jeffersonian, Towson, Md., July 19, 1919.

Anonymous, “St. Helena Sold [to Harry E. Gilbert who will incorporate Liberty Homes Corporation],” Jeffersonian, Towson, Md., August 9, 1919.

Anonymous, “’Point’ Workers Loyal [not joining a union],” Sun, September 29, 1919.

William Courtney Mattox, Building the Emergency Fleet (Penton Publishing Company: Cleveland, Ohio, 1920), pp. 17-80.

Anonymous, Full Page advertisement with photos offering Dundalk Shipping Board houses, Sun, February 12, 1920.

Anonymous, “Oil Leak Brings Charge Against Steel Officers [at Bethlehem Steel],” Sun, February 2, 1924.

Anonymous, “Holds Steel Plant Liable for Oil Leaks [decision of Judge Philip B. Perlman],” Sun, February 7, 1924.

Anonymous, “Charles M. Schwab: The World’s Greatest Salesman and Business Personality,” National Magazine, July 1924.

Anonymous, “Sparrows Point, Baltimore County’s Bee-Hive of Industry,” Jeffersonian, Towson, Md., July 14, 1924.

Anonymous, “Labor Organization for Sparrows Point Works [effort to organize by Daniel M. Grayton of A. F. of L.],” Jeffersonian, Towson, Md., December 6, 1924, p. 8.

John H. K. Shannahan, “A History of the Maryland Plant of the Bethlehem Steel Company.  Its Origin and Development from 1886-1925,” ca. 1926, ms. In Bethlehem Steel Company office, Baltimore [in 1985].

Anonymous, “Huge Industrial Center Planned at Sparrows Point—Development to Exceed 20 Million,” Jeffersonian, Towson, Md., January 24, 1925.

Anonymous, “Work on New Wire Mill to Start Soon [at Bethlehem Steel],” Sun, February 2, 1925.

Anonymous, “Work on New Wire Mill at ‘Point’ to Be Started in Near Future,” Jeffersonian, Towson, Md., February 14, 1925.

Anonymous, “Visits Sparrows Point, President of Bethlehem Steel Co. Makes Inspection Tour Here [Eugene T. Grace],” Jeffersonian, Towson, Md., May 9, 1925.

Anonymous, “Expansion Goes On at Sparrows Point—Last of 12 New Tin Plate Mills Under Construction,” Jeffersonian, Towson, Md., August 8, 1925.

Anonymous, “An ‘Iron Age’ Interview with Mr. Schwab,” Iron Age, January 1, 1926.

Anonymous, “Oil Tanker Explodes at Sparrows Point, 15 Die in Blast [S. S. Mantilla],” Baltimore News, November 19, 1926.

Anonymous, “Schwab Dreams Again. ‘That Sparrows Point Will Be Greatest Steel Works in the World,’” Baltimore, 20 (December 1926).

Anonymous, “Sparrows Point Steel Plant Ceases Activity During Funeral of E. H. Gary [tribute to chairman of the board of U. S. Steel Company],” Jeffersonian, Towson, Md., August 20, 1927.

Anonymous, “New Mill Unit Due to Operate Soon, Part of Bethlehem Concern’s $10,000,000 Plant to Function Next Month [pipe mill],”Sun, September 23, 1927.

John M. Leach, “The History of the Development of the Steel Industry in Baltimore and Vicinity,” paper presented to Phi Mu engineering honor society, 1928, U. of Md. Library, College Park.

Anonymous, “Work on $750,000 Span over Bear Creek Under Way—Will Be Thrown Open to Traffic Jan. 1[bascule or jack-knife bridge to Sparrows Point, private toll bridge built by Baltimore Division of Merritt, Chapman & Scott; owned by McClintock, Marshall & Company of Pittsburgh],” Jeffersonian, Towson, Md., June 1, 1929.

Anonymous, “New Furnaces to Be Erected at Steel Plant [80 houses to be razed for rail yards],” Sun, September 20, 1929.

John H. K. Shannahan, “Manufacture of Tin Cans Is Laborious [re tin mill at Sparrows Point],” Sun, November 17, 1929.

Edwin J. Foscue, “The Iron and Steel Industry of Sparrows Point,” Geographical Review, 21 (April 1931): 244-258. 

John H. K. Shannahan, “From Sparrows Nest to Sparrows Point,” Sun, November 8, 1931.

Anonymous, “Miss Perkins Visits Mills at Sparrows Point, Labor Secretary Obtains Data to Guide Her in Steel Code Rulings [Frances Perkins, Secretary of Labor in FDR cabinet],” Evening Sun, July 29, 1933.

Anonymous, “J. H. K. Shannahan [3rd] Dies at His Home.  Bethlehem Steel Official Had Been Ill for Several Weeks.  Writing Was His Hobby.  Was a Founder of Eastern Shore Society—Funeral to Be Held tomorrow [head of order and shipping department of Beth Steel, company historian, and writer on bay topics],” Sun, January 3, 1934. 

Anonymous, “Pensy to Discontinue Train Service to Sparrows Point,” Jeffersonian, Towson. Md., April 30, 1937.

Mary Sue Fielding, “Sparrows Point Was Once a Community of Handsome Farms,” Union News, Towson, Md., September 10, 1937.

Harry A. Grine, Report on the Iron and Steel Industry of Maryland: Blast Furnaces, Steel Works and Rolling Mills (Maryland State Planning Commission: Baltimore, 1938).

Pittsburgh Association of Iron and Steel Engineers, From Ore to Ships: the Maryland Plant of the Bethlehem Steel Company (Pittsburgh: 1938), at EPFL.

Stirling Graham, “Bracelets or Bridges, Steel Wire Serves Them Both, Woven Cables, Tiny Springs, Restful Beds Rely on Wire [Beth Steel Wire Mill],” Sun, January 9, 1938.

Anonymous, “Sparrows Point Plant of the Bethlehem Steel Company,” Baltimore, 32 (March 1939): 52-53.

Anonymous, “Sparrows Point Shipyard Workers Taboo Strike.  Hold Meeting to Force Federal Intervention to Aid Bargaining Plan,” Jeffersonian, Towson, Md., July 26, 1940.

Lee McCardell, “Old Farms Give Way to Houses as Dundalk Industry Expands.  Truckers Pushed Out as Land Becomes Too Valuable for Crops upon Demand fro Living Space by Industrial Workers—World War Boom Town Rapidly Regains Lost Population,” Evening Sun, October 2, 1940.

Anonymous, “Roosevelt Greeted at Martin Plant by More Than 300 Bethlehem Steel Company Strikers,” Jeffersonian, Towson, Md., October 4, 1940.

Anonymous, “County Officials Use Stern Methods to Break Strike.  Police Chief and State’s Attorney Charge Strikers with Rioting and C. I. O. Voted to Go Back to Work.  Six Held for Court.  Cops Battle Strikers in Stone Throwing and Clubbing of Loyal Employees,” Jeffersonian, Towson, Md.,  October 11, 1940. 

Anonymous, “Bethlehem Steel Pickets Clash with Police, 20 Officers Hurt, 8 Workers Arrested in CIO Work Stoppage—Union Charges Intimidation by Sub Bosses and Police,” Evening Sun, August 19, 1941.

J. T. Ward, “Billion in Orders, Steel Firm Employs 210,000,” Evening Sun, March 9, 1942.

William B. Crane, “Production Line Merchant Fleet [wartime output of new Liberty Ships],” Sun, March 15, 1942, additional photographs in Rotogravure section.

Anonymous, “Obituary. Frederick William Wood [president of Maryland Steel Company for 25 Years, 1891-1916; born in Lowell, Mass., age 86],” Sun, December 24, 1943.

Robert R. Bennett, Physical Characteristics of Sparrows Point (U. S. Dept. of Interior, Geological Survey: Washington, D. C., 1945).

Bethlehem Steel Company, Sparrows Point Plant (Bethlehem, Pa., 195_).

Anonymous, “Sparrows Point Plant,” Sun, July 13, 1947.

Carroll E. Williams, “Tidewater Pittsburgh at Sparrows Point,” Sun, January 11, 1948.

Anonymous, “A Decade of Expansion,” Iron & Steel Engineer, April 1949, pp. B5-7.

William Wiegman, “I Remember When . . .  A Warship Refused to Be Launched

[U. S. S. Worden at Sparrows Point in 1901],” Sun Magazine, October 9, 1949.

Anonymous, “Bethlehem Steel Plans $30,000,000 Expansion at Sparrows Point Plant, Will Boost by 900,000 Tons Annual Capacity for Certain Products—Increase of About 800 Workers Expected,” Sun, January 27, 1950.

Helen Delich, “Baltimore Harbor Airlift.  Wallace G. Groome Operated Floating Dry Docks That Raise Ships for Repairs [at Key Highway yard],” Sun Magazine, May 7, 1950.

Helen Delich, “Pattern Maker to Queens of the Sea, Mr. Moe’s Designs Would Baffle Hattie Carnegie or John Frederics [Lawrence L. Moessinger, pattern-maker at Beth Steel’s Key Highway Shi[p Repair Yard],” Sun, Magazine, October 14, 1951.

Helen Delich, “Big Hands That Play with ore [re cranes at Sparrows Point],” Sun, October 23, 1952.

Anonymous, “Bethlehem Steel,” Fortune, March 1953.

Richard K. Tucker, “1804 Grave in Bethlehem Steel Plant Is Part of Sparrows Point History [Trotten family cemetery; also mention of Eldred Hotel and Marine Store],” Evening Sun, March 1, 1954.

Spencer Davidson, “’Point’ to Raze 187 Homes [demolition of 200-300-400 blocks of D, E, and F Streets, Sparrows Point; photo of 2-1/2 story row houses],” Evening Sun, November 21, 1955.

Philip Robbins, “Sparrows Point Plant Surpassing All Others,” Evening Sun, December 26, 1956.

Anonymous, “Bethlehem Steel—Powerful Factor in Our Economy,” Baltimore, 51 (August 1958): 14-16.

George L. Moore, “I Remember . . .  The Old ‘Company Store’ at Sparrows Point,” Sun Magazine, January 4, 1959.

Bethlehem Steel Corporation, 1856-1960, photo collection, Hagely Museum and Library, Accession No. 80.300 [incl. Sparrows Point material after 1016; also Charles Schwab materials].

George C. Little, “The Expansion Program at Sparrows Point, Engineering and Mechanical Aspects,” Iron and Steel Engineer, February 1959.

David Brody, Steelworkers in America (Harvard University Press: Cambridge, Mass., 1960), p. 255.

Bethlehem Steel Company, “Principio to Sparrows Point.  A Brief History of Maryland’s Iron Industry, Part II,” personal author Edgar Drake (Baltimore, 1962), EPFL.

Bethlehem Steel Company, Steel in the Making.  How the World’s Most Useful Metal Is Made, and Some of the Ways It Serves Us All (Bethlehem, Pa., ca. 1962).

Joseph T. Kasprzak, “I Remember  . . .  Riding the Red Rockets to the Point [No. 26 trolley car to Sparrows Point],” Sun Magazine, April 28, 1963.

Robert H. Burgess and H. Graham Wood, Steamboats Out of Baltimore (Tidewater Publishers: Cambridge, Md., 1968 [photos of overnight steamers built at Sparrows Point yard], pp. 153-154.

Anonymous, “2 Killed in Explosion at Bethlehem Plant; 22 Others Are Injured [at steam generating station],” Sun, May 4, 1968.

Margaret Lunger, “I Remember . . .  Growing Up in the ‘Little Kingdom’ of Sparrows Point,” Sun Magazine, December 1, 1968.

Audrey Bishop, “Sparrows Point.  Ghost Town in the Making,” News American Extra, November 14, 1971.

Judith Kreiner, “Sparrows Point Slowly Razed.  The End of a Mill Town,” News American, May 12, 1972. 

John T. Adams, “Sparrows Point Villagers  Packing to Leave,” Dundalk Times, August 3, 1972.

Wayne Garner, “Looking Back on Sparrows Point,” Dundalk Times, January 4, 1973.

Wayne Hardin, “North Point Road, Boulevard, Main  Drag into ‘Point’ Owes Its Soul to Mill,” Evening Sun, April 3, 1972.

Reunion Committee, The Point . . . .  to Remember [African American experience at Bethlehem Steel] (Sparrows Point, Md., 1973).

Susan Wheeler, “Point Disappearing as Residents Move,” Dundalk Eagle, April 12, 1972.

Michael Hill, “One Last Gesture, Sparrows Point Has Reunion Week,” Evening Sun, May 24, 1973.

Toni House, “A Company Town Faces the End,” Washington Star, May 27, 1973.

Jeanne B. Sergeant, “Slow Death of a Company Town [Sparrows Point residential area],” Baltimore, 66 (August 1973): 28-33.

Earl Arnett, “A Town Fades Away at Sparrows Point,” Sun, September 11, 1973.

Donald Kimelman, “Sexton Tolls Bell at St. Luke’s for the Last Time,” Sun, November 16, 1973.

Jesse Glasgow, “Point’s New Blast Furnace to Be Hemisphere’s Biggest [Sparrows Point’s L-Furnace],” Sun, November 18, 1973.

Anonymous, “Company Town Is Being Leveled,” Evening Sun, March 22, 1974.

Enid Sefcovic, “The Company Giveth and the Company Taketh Away [re demolition of Sparrows Point housing],” News American, April 16, 1974.

Robert Hessen, Steel Titan: The Life of Charles M. Schwab (Oxford University Press: New York, 1975).

Robert M. Vogel, ed., Some Industrial Archeology of the Monumental City & Environs: the Physical Presence of Baltimore’s Engineering and Industrial History: A Guide for S. I. A. Tourists (Society for Industrial Archeology: Washington, D. C., 1975).

Jacques Kelly, “Archaeologists to Tour Old Area Industries [SIA Convention],” News American, April 25, 1975.

W. David Lewis, Iron and Steel in America (The Hagely Museum: Greenville, Delaware, 1976).

Dundalk-Patapsco Neck Historical Society, Reflections: Sparrows Point, Md. 1887-1978 (Dundalk, Md., 1978).

Ross Hetrick, “Biggest Furnace in Western Hemisphere [L-Furnace, Sparrows Point],” Evening Sun, September 28, 1978.

Anonymous, “A New Giant Comes to Life at Sparrows Point [the L-Furnace],” Sun Magazine, October 1, 1978.

Bethlehem Steel Company, Bethlehem Shipyards (BethShip: Bethlehem, Pa., 1979).

Bethlehem Steel Corporation, Recollections in Celebration of 75 Years (Bethlehem, Pa., 1979).

Neal A. Brooks and Eric G. Rockel.  A History of Baltimore County (Friends of the Towson Library: Towson, Md., 1979), pp. 316-318.

Linda  Zeidman and Stan Markowitz, One Voice, a History of Baltimore Steelworkers and the Making of a Union (film, exhibit, and souvenir program, Essex Community College: Essex, Md., 1979).

Helen Wintermitz, “Slide-Tape Show to Debut Today.  History of Steelworkers Locally Put on Film [side show by Linda Zeidman],” Sun, September 8, 1979.

Dundalk-Patapsco Neck Historical Society, Dundalk, Then and Now 1894-1980 (Dundalk, Md., 1980).

Anonymous, “Bethlehem Steel Corporation,” in Suzanne Ellery Greene, Baltimore, An Illustrated History (Windsor Publications: Woodley Hills, California, 1980), pp. 242-243.

Sherry H. Olson, Baltimore: The Building of  An American City (Johns Hopkins University Press: Baltimore, 1980).

Mark Reutter, “The Invisible Risk.  Why Sparrows Point Workers Should Be Congratulated for Making It Through a Day without Injury,” Mother Jones, August 1980.

Katherine White, “Industrial Exhibit Stirs Worker’s Memory [Baltimore Museum of Industry display on Sparrows Point plant],” Sun, June 15, 1980.

William H. Mulligan, Jr., “The Corporation Community: Life in Sparrows Point, Maryland,” Business and Economic History, 9 (1981): 136-138.

Anonymous, “Bethlehem Steel Corporation Still a Titan in Our Times,” Maryland Magazine, 14 (Winter 1981): 36-39.

Anonymous, “Recycling at Sparrows Point [controlled demolition of obsolete Furnaces A-G],”  Bethlehem Review, 1982/2, pp. 6-7.

Anonymous, “New Beth Coke Oven on Line,” Evening Sun, August 20, 1982.

Tom Nugent, “Life at the Point [re steel plant],” Sun Magazine, September 5, 1982.

Bruce Reid, “Company Town Is Recaptured in Photos at Sparrows point,” Sun, September 27, 1982.

Lawrence Kessner, “Bethlehem Occupies Historic Shipyards [former owners of Key Highway sites were Baltimore Drydock and Ship Building Company and William Skinner shipyard],” Evening Sun, October 6, 1982.

Anonymous, “Bethlehem Unveils Billet Grinder,” Sun, November 20, 1982.

Peter Meredith, “Bethlehem Loss Sets Record at $1.15 Billion,” Sun, January 27, 1983. 

Charles V. Flowers, “Bethlehem to Donate Ship Papers ship drawings given to Maryland Historical Society],” Sun, February 4, 1983.

Kathleen J. Beasley, “Letters to the Editor, Working Women at Sparrows Point,” Sun, April 23, 1983.

Ross Hetrick, “Beth Steel Sells Shipyard [Key Highway],”  Evening Sun, June 10, 1983.

Ellen L. James, “Bethlehem Steel to Plan Major Deal, Sparrows Point Plant Would Get Continuous Caster,” Sun, June 30, 1983.

Sherrie Clinton, “Beth Steel Plans Deal for 2 Casters,” Evening Sun, June 30, 1983.

Ellen L. James, “Bethlehem Steel Going Ahead on Modernization of Plant,” Sun, July 1, 1983.

Anonymous, “Bethlehem Awards Contract [for continuous casters],” Evening Sun, August 31, 1983.

Ross Hetrick, “Bethlehem Bets $1 Billion on Local Mill,” Evening Sun, November 30, 1983.

Ross Hetrick, “Explosion at the Point, Bethlehem Steel Blast Kills 2, Injures 3rd at Sparrows Point [at L-Furnace],” Evening Sun, February 24, 1984.

Dan Rodericks, “Furnace Boss Bobby Took the (White Hot) Heat Daily [follow-up to fatal blast at Sparrows Point],” Evening Sun, February 29, 1984.

Jennie Abdo, “Bethlehem Mill Due Upgrading,” Evening Sun, March 8, 1984.

Tom Horton, “300 Pollution Violations Laid to Beth Steel in Suit,” Sun, April 24, 1984.

John W. McGrain, From Pig Iron to Cotton Duck (Board of Library Trustees: Towson, Md., 1985).

Drucilla Null, “The Development of the Dundalk Historic District, 1890-1985: Evolution of a Planned Industrial Community” (M. A. Thesis, George Washington University, 1985).

John Strohmeyer, “Rebuilding Bethlehem Steel,” Bethlehem Globe-Times, ____, 1985.

Anonymous, “The Lyceum Theatre in the Town of Sparrows Point [photo and informative caption],” Dundalk Eagle, January 31, 1985.

Anonymous, “Rod Mill Sets Rolling Record,” Dundalk Eagle, March 28, 1985.

Anonymous, “Topping Out Completed for Slab/Bloom Caster,” Iron and Steel Engineer, April 1985.

Jennie Abdo, “Beth Steel to Dump Spoil at Hart-Miller [island retention site for dredge spoil],” Evening Sun, April 25, 1985.

Associated Press, “Judge Rules Bethlehem Steel Illegally Polluted Bay,” Evening Sun, May 10, 1985.

Michael K. Burns, “Point Gets New Permit on Water.  Md. Requires Drastic Cut in Discharrges’ Toxicity,” Sun, October 16, 1985.

Anonymous, “Blackwell to Manage Sparrows Point Plant [David E. Blackwell],” Dundalk Eagle, November 14, 1985.

Anonymous, “Down Memory Lane [photo of first company ambulance, 1930],” Dundalk Eagle, November 14, 1985.

Van Holland, “SPHS Heritage Center Reception This Sunday [Sparrows Point High School],” Dundalk Eagle, November 14, 1985.

Henry C. Peden, Historical Register of the Sparrows Point Police Department (by the author: Bel Air, Md., 1986).

Michael Statz, “Steeling for the Future, Dundalk Struggles to Escape Its Past,” City Paper, January 24, 1986.

Ross Hetrick, “Return to Steel, Back to Basics for Bethlehem; Will Sell Its Non-Steel Subsidiaries,” Evening Sun, April 30, 1986.

Carl Schoettler, “The Sweat, Pain, and Triumph of Steel Workers [film about steelworkers entitled One Voice by Linda Zeidman and Stan Markowitz],” Evening Sun, June 12, 1986.

Tom Horton, “Bethlehem Woes Expand Under Pollution Laws,” Sun, June 29, 1986.

Steve McKerrow, “Dundalk’s Blue-Collar Heritage [reports on new TV documentary],” Sun, September 10, 1986.

Robert A. Erlandson, “Company Town of Sparrows Point Fades into the Past,” Sun, December 22, 1986.

Baltimore County Economic Development Commission, “Bethlehem Steel/South East Economic Development,” Annual Report, Towson, Md., 1987, n.p.

John Strohmeyer, Crisis in Bethlehem: Beth Steel’s Struggle to Survive (Penguin Books: New York, 1987).

Jon Morgan, “First Job for Beth Floating Drydock,” Evening Sun, January 5, 1987.

John M. Starrels, “Gloom at the Point, Layoff at Bethlehem, Baltimore’s Largest Private Employer, Reflect Steel Import Competition, and Threaten the Economy,” Evening Sun, January 22, 1987.

Anonymous, “Beth Steel to Pay In Bay Lawsuit,” Jeffersonian, February 19, 1987. 

Robert A. Erlandson, “Industrial Park Slated for Sparrows Point Site,” Sun, April 17, 1987.

Robert A. Erlandson, “Bethlehem’s Land Offer Contingent on Tax Break [offer of 400 acres to Baltimore County],” Sun, May 20, 1987.

Larry Carson, “Beth Steel Seeks Land-for-Tax Swap.  An Investment in Future County Says,” Evening Sun, May 20, 1987.

Ellen L. James, “Happy Days for Big Steel: How Long Can They Last,” Sun, May 24, 1987, p. F-1.

Jon Morgan, “County Offers Beth Drydock Deal,” Evening Sun, June 29, 1987.

Jesse Glasgow, “County Proposes to Buy, Move Beth Steel Dry Dock,” Sun, June 30, 1987.

Mike Klingman, “Psychic Trauma afflicts Victims of Layoffs [at Beth Steel],” Evening Sun, July 29, 1987 (first of four articles).

Anonymous, Floating Shipyard [moving drydock to Sparrows Point],” Sun, August 19, 1987, editorial.

John Hartsock, “Ship Yards Vie for Big Navy Contract,” Evening Sun, September 2, 1987.

Helen Delich Bentley, M. C., “Key Highway Floating Drydock Moved to Sparrows Point,” Congresswoman Helen Delich Bentley Reports, September-October 1987, p. 3.

Larry Carson, “Rasmussen Envisions Beth Steel Land as Industrial Park,” Evening Sun, October 8, 1987.

Jon Morgan, “$100 Million Point Project under Study [proposed expansion of hot strip mill at Sparrows Point],” Sun, October 21, 1987.

Anonymous, “Beth Steel Tax Cut Proposed,” Towson Times, October 28, 1987.

Liz Bowie, “Beth Steel Agrees to Clean Emissions, Md. Negotiates Fines, Plant Modifications,” Sun, November 3, 1987.

Robin Foster, “County Exec Takes Industrial Park Plan to the People,” Jeffersonian, November 19, 1987.

Anonymous, “Proposal for Sparrows Point Industrial Park,” Dundalk Eagle, November 19, 1987.

Michelle Singletary, “Proposed Industrial Park Passes 1st Check for Pollution,” Evening Sun, December 3, 1987.

Van Holland, “Steelworkers Question Proposed Industrial Park,” Dundalk Eagle, December 3, 1987.

Stewart Schultze, “Beth Site Wastes Concern Council, “ Jeffersonian, Towson, Md., December 3, 1987.

Anonymous, “Tax Break Voted for Beth Steel,” Evening Sun,  December 8, 1987. 

Neal A. Brooks and Richard Parsons, Baltimore County Panorama (Baltimore County Public Library: Towson, Md., 1988).

Merle T. Cole, The Happy Solution.  A Short History of the Dewey Floating Dry Dock (Calvert Maritime Museum Press: Solomons, Md., 1988).

Mark Reutter, Sparrows Point, Making Steel—The Rise and Ruin of American Industrial Might (Summit Books: New York, 1988).

John H. Gormley, Jr., “Beth Shipyard Wins $3.2 Million Navy Contract.  Bethpride Dry Dock to Be Site of Repairs,” Sun, March 3, 1988.

Raymond Carignan, “Negotiations Advance for New Industrial Park,” Focus (Baltimore County Executive Office newsletter), Spring 1988, p. 1.

Paul Wirth, “Beth Steel: We’ve Turned the Corner,” Evening Sun, March 28, 1988.

John H. Gormley, Jr., “Yard Cannot Live by Ships Alone.  Sparrows Point Takes on Non-Nautical Work to Get By,” Sun,  March 30, 1988.

August Ludwig, “Turning the Clock Back. Remembering the Town of Sparrows Point; 1917-1937,” Dundalk Eagle, June 2. 1988.

Anonymous, “Beth’s ‘L’ Blast Furnace Sets April Record,” Dundalk Eagle, June 9, 1988.

Nick Wischuck. “Turning the Clock Back.  Warm Memories of Living in Sparrows point: 1939-1943,” Dundalk Eagle, June 16, 1988.

Van Holland, “SPHS Museum Seeking to Enlarge Collection,” Dundalk Eagle, July 21, 1988.

John H. Gormley, Jr., “Beth Steel OKs $200 Million to Fix Up Mill,” Sun, July 28, 1988.

Pat Williams. “Major  Toxic Pollutant Reduction At Beth Steel,” Dundalk Eagle, October 6, 1988.

Pat Williams, “Beth Steel’s Wastewater Use Innovative,” Dundalk Eagle, October 13, 1988.

Van Holland, “Book on Sparrows Point Scheduled for Publication [Mark Reutter],” Dundalk Eagle, October 27, 1988.

Emma Johnson Mock, “Turning the Clock Back.  Memories of Growing Up in Sparrows Point: 1908-1917,” Dundalk Eagle, October 27, 1988.

Michelle Singletary, “Clean Land Report Clears Way for Sparrows Pt. Industrial Park,” Evening Sun, November 2, 1988.

Pat Williams, “Residents Steamed over Cement Plant Emissions [from Blue Circle Atlantic Cement at Penwood Wharf Road],” Dundalk Eagle, November 3, 1988.

Pat Williams, “Industrial Park Sites Clear Environmental Studies,” Dundalk Eagle, November 10, 1988.

Van Holland, “Library System Publishes Photographic History of County [re Baltimore County Panorama; illustrated with Sparrows Point vintage photos],” Dundalk Eagle, November 17, 1988.

Mark Reutter, “Men of Steel. An Excerpt form ‘Sparrows Point,’” Sun Magazine, November 20, 1988.

Michael K. Burns, “Bethlehem Steel Cleared in Probe of Fatal Accident[to Valentine J. Goraleski at L-Furnace],” Sun, November 23, 1988. Follow-up, Evening  Sun, November 23, 1988.

Pat Williams, “Union Charges Beth Steel Hindered Investigation of Employee’s Death [Valentine J. Goralski],” Dundalk Eagle, November 24, 1988.

John Strohmeyer, “How Steel Lost Its Strength at Sparrows Point [review of Mark Reutter book],” Sun, December 4, 1988.

Pat Williams, “MOSH Investigation Clears Beth Steel, Puzzles Union,” Dundalk Eagle, December 8, 1988.

Anonymous, “$315,000 Proposed for Garage [county fire department maintenance garage on Beth Steel grounds],” Evening Sun, December 15, 1988.

Karen Gatzke, “Westbrook Brings Old No. 3 Back to Dundalk [John Westbrook acquired old 1942 Mack fire engine of company force],” Dundalk Eagle, December 15, 1988.

Anonymous, “Beth Steel’s Debt Is Upgraded by S&P,” Evening Sun, December 21, 1988.

Van Holland, “The ‘Founders’ of the Plant and Town of Sparrows Point [Rufus Wood and brother Frederick K. Wood],” Dundlak Eagle, January 5, 1989.

Anonymous, “Bethlehem Steel Employee Killed on Jon [Richard K. Spencer],” Dundlak Eagle, January 19, 1989.

Freed Dice, “Turning the Clock Back.  Recalling the Drum & Bugle Corps, Logan Field, & the Town of Sparrows Point,” Dundalk Eagle, January 26, 1989.

Charles F. Sabel, “Left Behind at the Forge [book review of Mark Reutter’s Sparrows Point: Making Steel, etc],” New York Times, February 5, 1989.

Michael R. Amann, “Turning the Clock  Back.  The Early History of the Town of Sparrows Point,” Dundalk Eagle, February 9, 1989.

Anonymous, “Beth’s Sparrows Point Plant Records Best Year Since 1979,” Dundalk Eagle, February 16, 1989.

Ben Herman, “Turning the Clock Back.  Requiem for An English Teacher: Miss Elsie Krug,” Dundalk Eagle, February 16, 1989.

Diane Levero, “Men of Steel [100th anniversary of first pig iron at Sparrows Point],” City Paper, March 17, 1989.

Errol B. Hay, “Sparrows Point [environmental manager of steel works protests company is doing notable pollution control work],” Sun, July 19, 1989, letter to editor.

Kim Clark, “Bethlehem to Build Galvanizing Facility at Sparrows Point,” Sun, July 28, 1989.

Robert A. Erlandson, “Rasmussen Seeks Non-Profit Overseer for Industrial Park,” Sun, September 12, 1989.

Mark Reutter, “Portfolio” Men of Steel,” Regardie’s, 16 (October 1989): 128-138.

John H. Gormley, Jr., “Sparrows Point Shipyard Christens What Could Be Its Last Large Vessel [USNS Tanner],” Sun, October 8, 1989. 

Anonymous, “Memorabilia Day Set at SPHS Mini-Museum [Sparrows Point High School],” Dundalk Eagle, November 9, 1989.

Anonymous, “Final Blast for Furnace [demolition of 30-year-old K-Furnace],” Sun, November 16, 1989.

Anonymous, “Final Blast for Furnace [photo of toppling K-Furnace],” Sun, November 16, 1989.

Bernd and Hilla Becher, Blast Furnaces [photos at Sparrows Point and other plants](MIT Press: Cambridge, Mass., 1990).

Liz Bowie, “EPA Sues Beth Steel over Chemical Spills,” Sun, May 3, 1990.

John H. Gormley, Jr., “Sparrows Point’s Ships Come In.  Yard Fixes Its Fortunes by Turning to Repairs,” Sun, June 17, 1990.

Timothy B. Wheeler, “Bethlehem Steel Plant Continues to Pollute,” Evening Sun, July 18, 1990.

Liz Bowie, “Bethlehem Steel May Be Fined for Pollution Violations,” Sun, July 19, 1990.

Pat Williams, “State, Steel Co. Discuss Penalty,” Jeffersonian, Towson, Md., July 26, 1990.

Matt Roshkow, “Beth Steel Negotiates with State over $163,00 Pollution Fine.  Steelmaker Files Suit over Clean Water Act,” Dundalk Eagle,  August 2, 1990.

Matt Roshkow, “North Point Residents Discuss Spur Dredging.  County Plan Cheap, But ‘A Gamble,’ Says Stone,” Dundalk Eagle, August 2, 1990.

Larry Carson, “Tax-Cap Specter Delays Fire Complex Project,” Evening Sun, October 2, 1990. 

Glenn Small, “Pollution Delays County’s Use of Beth Steel Ground,” Evening Sun, October 19, 1990.

Anonymous, “Author Discusses Smoke-Hidden Plant at Sparrows Point [Mark Reutter’s lecture to Society for History of Technology at Towson Sheraton],” Dundalk Eagle, October 22, 1990.

Kim Clark, “One-Step Steel.  Reduction of Pollution and Costs Would Be the ‘Direct’ Payoffs [coke-less method tried in Universal, Pa.],” Sun, November 18, 1990.

Kenneth R. Gardner, “Turning the Clock Back.  Memories of Growing Up in Sparrows Point 40 Years Ago,” Dundalk Eagle, November 29, 1990.

Sherod Cooper, S. S. John Brown: Baltimore’s Living Liberty (Project Liberty Ship: Baltimore, 1991). 

Linda Zeidman, “Sparrows Point, Dundalk, Highlandtown . . . ,” in The Baltimore Book, eds., Elizabeth Fee, Linda Shopes & Linda Zeidman (Temple University Press: Philadelphia, 1991), pp.  174-188.

Pat Williams, “Beth Steel Leads Top Ten List of Toxic Polluters,” Catonsville Times, January 2, 1991.

Dennis O’Brien, “Hayden May Scrap Plans for Academy, Garage,” Sun, April 25, 1991.

Glen Small, “Fond Memories Rekindled of Town That Vanished.  ‘Pointers’ of the Sparrows Variety Having a Reunion,” Evening Sun, May 24, 1991.

Larry Carson, “County, Beth Steel in Dispute.  Steel Firm’s Tax Breaks Supposed to Bring Land Transfer,” Evening Sun, July 1, 1991.

Kim Clark, “A Smoke-Free Workplace [Sparrows Point].” Sun, Maryland Business Weekly, July 29, 1991.

Jed Kirschbaum, “New Age at Beth Steel [photos of new strip mill and computer monitoring station],” Sun, September 4, 1991.

Larry Carson, “Balto. Co. Gets Land Accord.  County Is Due Acreage from Beth Steel,’ Evening Sun, September 11, 1991.

Timothy B. Wheeler and Liz Atwood, “Idling of Coke Ovens May Cost 500 Jobs.  Chronic Pollution Problems Cited at Beth Steel Plant,” Sun, September 17, 1991.

John H. Gormley, Jr., “Bethlehem Shipyard Wins Contract.  Tunnel Section Work Worth $60 Million [for Boston harbor],” Sun, October 26, 1991.

Liz Atwood, “BethSteel Shipyard Struggles But Sees Brighter Day Soon.  Yard’s Plight Typifies That of U. S. Shipbuilding Industry,” Evening Sun, December 6, 1991.

Ross Hetrick, “Beth Steel Cuts Dividend, Work Force.  350 Jobs Are Imperiled at Sparrows Point Plant,” Evening Sun, January 29, 1992.

Anonymous, “County to Get Industrial Land,” Evening Sun, February 6, 1992.

Mark Reutter, “How to Save Sparrows Point and Other Troubled Mills,” Evening Sun,  April 29, 1992.

Liz Atwood, “Ship Comes In at Sparrows Point.  BethShip Boosts Hiring to Near Four-Year High to Fill Two Big Contracts,” Sun, June 12, 1992.

Ross Hetrick, “Sparrows Point Top Executive Named [Carl W.] Johnson to Take Helm at Steel Mill,” Sun, July 7, 1992.

Ross Hetrick, “Bailing Out Bethlehem [Curtis H. Barnette named CEO],” Sun, September 14, 1992.

Anonymous, “H. H. Johnson, Sparrows Point Foreman,” Sun, October 20, 1992, obituary.

Michael Ollove, “Deadly Dust.  A Neighborhood Tells the Dreadful Sequel to Steel’s Glory Years,” Sun, October 25, 1992.

Darcy Spencer, “Proposed Sparrows Point Industrial Park Underway,” Dundalk Eagle, October 29, 1992.

Darcy Spencer, “Bethlehem Steel Rod Mill May Reopen If Indonesian Firm Buys.  Firm Plans to Negotiate Union Contract,” Dundalk Eagle, December 3, 1992.

Ross Hetrick, “New Vision for Sparrows Point.  Division Chief Aims to Energize Old Plant,” Sun, February 1, 1993.

Ross Hetrick, “Bethlehem Steel Loses $41 Million.  CEO Still Foresees Turnaround in ’93,” Sun, April 28, 1993.

Kim Clark, “U. S. Shipyards Ride Rough Seas of a New World.  Bethship Can It Stay Afloat?,” Sun July 25, 1993.

Bloomberg Business News, “Bethlehem Steel Fined $6 Million for Pollution,” Sun, September 4, 1993.

Ed Brandt, “Memorial Honors Victims of Steel Plant Accidents,” Sun, November 18, 1993, with photo showing many names.

Wayne Laufert, “State Slows Pace on Starting Sparrows Point Shoreline Plans.  Says Criticism to Be Considered,” Dundlak Eagle, September 23, 1993.

Anonymous, “World Standard at Sparrows point,” Sun, January 22, 1994, editorial.

Ross Hetrick, “Bethlehem Mills Turn a Profit.  Sparrows Point Cited for Efforts,” Sun, January 27, 1994.

Matt McLaughlin, “Maryland Slag a Hot Commodity in County’s Battle Against Ice.  Bad Weather Is a ‘Bonanza’ for Company,” Dundalk Eagle, February 17, 1994.

Wayne Laufert, “County Still Mulling Over Sparrows Point Tenants. Jacobs Addresses Dundalk Council,” Dundalk Eagle, March 17, 1994.

Joe Nawrozki, “Molten Iron Kills Steelworker at Sparrows Point,” Sun, April 20, 1994.

Matt McLaughlin, “Spill of Molten Iron Kills Steelworker,” Dundalk Eagle, April 21, 1994.

Norris P. West and Joe Nawrozki, “Steelworker [Wayne Thompson] Killed by Molten Metal.  Never Let Dangerous Job Get Him Down,” Sun, April 23, 1994.

Jay Hancock, “Bethlehem Steel Shines Again.  Growing Economy Helps Boost Steelmaker’s Profits,” Sun, May 1, 1994.

Anonymous, “Steelworker Memorialized [Tablet in memory of Wayne G. Thompson at union hall on Dundalk Avenue],” Dundalk Eagle, May 5, 1994.

Anonymous, “Bethlehem Steel Shows Profit for First Quarter,” Dundalk Eagle, May 3, 1994.

Ross Hetrick, “Bethlehem Workers Go Overtime.  Demand for Steel Pushes up Hours; Few Workers Hired,” Sun, June 7, 1994.

Stephen Israel, “The Industrial Heritage of Highlandtown, Canton, Dundalk, Sparrows Point and Bay Shore Park along Streetcar line  26,” Benjamin Latrobe Chapter of the Society for Industrial Archeology and Baltimore Museum of Industry, Baltimore, 1995.

Thomas J. Misa, A Nation of Steel: The Making of Modern America, 1865-1925 (Johns Hopkins University Press: Baltimore, 1995).

Dennis M. Zembala, ed., Baltimore; Industrial Gateway on the Chesapeake (Baltimore Museum of Industry: Baltimore, 1995).

Ross Hetrick, “’Strong Year’ for Bethlehem.  Steelmaker Earns $80.5 Million in Year; First Profit Since ’89,” Sun, January 26, 1995.

Anonymous, “Sparrows Point: More Than a Company Town,” Dundalk Eagle, February 23, 1995.

Ross Hetrick, “Beth Steel Making Strong Comeback.  Profit Outlook Good After a Modest ’94,” Sun, April 15, 1995.

Kim Clark, “Good News at Beth Steel.  Earnings Growth Continues Through the First Quarter,” Sun, April 26, 1995.

Kim Clark, “Steelmakers Hope for a Springy Landing.  After a Strong Showing Last Year, Things Are Settling Down,” Sun, July 10, 1995.

John Rivers, “2 of 8 ex-Beth Steel Workers Win Damages in Asbestos Case,” Sun, July 27, 1995.

Liz Atwood, “Great Deal for Beth Steel. Baltimore County Gave Millions in Tax Breaks for Land It May Not Use,” Sun, July 27, 1995.

Liz Atwood, “Beth Steel May Keep Its Land, Tax Break, Too.  Baltimore County Wary of Cleanup Tab,” Evening Sun, July 27, 1995.

Ross Hetrick, “Bethlehem Steel Earnings Rocket.  But Stocks Slumps as 2nd Quarter Falls Short of Predictions,” Sun, July 27, 1995.

Liz Atwood, “Baltimore County Rethinking Tax Break Worth $3 Million to Beth Steel,” Sun, July 28, 1995.

Suzanne Wooton, “Navy Chief Restores City’s Home Port Status.  Move Lets BethShip Yard Do Repair Work,” Sun, August 2, 1995.

Ross Hetrick, “Steel Industry Exports Booming.  Sparrows Point Makes Big Gains,” Sun, August 19, 1995.

Curtis H. Barnette, Bethlehem Steel Corporation: American Manufacturing Leadership in a Changing Global Economy (Newcomen Society of U. S.: New York, 1995), Publication No. 1457, Towson University library.

Timothy J. Mullaney, “Manufacturing.  Beth Steel Mulls Coke Oven Restart.  Permit Application Filed with State for Sparrows Point Plant,” Sun, February 22, 1996.

Timothy J. Mullaney, “Manufacturing.  Beth Steel’s Earnings Reflect Tough Winter.  $100,000 Quarterly Profits a Result of Bad Weather, GM Strike, Sun, April 24, 1996.

Sean Somerville, “No Respite Is in Sight for Struggling Giant.  Steel: Bethlehem Steel Expects to Bounce Back from a Dismal First Quarter, But Tough Competitive Challenges Lie Ahead,” Sun, May 8, 1996.

Richard Irwin, “Sparrows Point Country Club Damaged in Two-Alarm Blaze,” Sun, May 24, 1996.

Sean Somerville, “Manufacturing.  Steelworkers Learn Finance from a Game.  Beth Steel Program Aims to Show Overall Corporate Picture.  Union-Company Initiative.  Consensus, Readiness to Accept and Propose Changes Are Sought,” Sun, June 2, 1996.

Anonymous, “Sparrows Point Supplies Steel for Houses [steel framing for residences],” Dundalk Eagle, July 4, 1996.

Wayne Laufert, “Beth Steel Reports Quarterly Earnings, Labor Pact Decision,” Dundalk Eagle, August 8, 1996.

Timothy B. Wheeler, “Patapsco Pollution among Worst.  Sparrows Point Plant Legally Discharges Most Toxic Metals,” Sun, September 25, 1996.

Sean Somerville, “Shipbuilding.  Beth Steel Moves Toward Selling Yard.  Chase Securities Hired to Explore Closing Division, Finding Buyer.  Business Unprofitable.  600 People Work on Ship Repair in Sparrows Point,” Sun, October 23, 1996.

Sean Somerville, Beth Yard to Sell or Else.  Company Prepared to Close Shipbuilder; 700 Jobs in Jeopardy.  Buyer Is Still Being Sought.  CEO Calls Decision ‘A Very Difficult One’; No Timetable Is Given,” Sun, October 31, 1996.

Wayne Laufert, “Bethlehem Steel Wants to Sell Sparrows Pt. Shipyard in 1996.  Will ‘Evaluate’ BethShip in ’97 If It’s Unsold,” Dundalk Eagle, November 7, 1996.

Paul Inskeep, “Remembering the Glory Days of Sparrows Point [letter to editor],” Sun, November 14, 1996.

Robert L. Ehrlich, Jr., M. C.,  “Ehrlich on Washington.  Fighting for BethShip,” Dundalk Eagle, November 21, 1996.

Sean Somerville, “Pensions.  Beth Steel Retirees Fret over Nest Eggs.  Moves to Sell, Close 4 Struggling Divisions Worry Ex-Workers,” Sun, November 21, 1996.

Wayne Laufert, “Beth Pension Fund Said to Be Secure.  Health Care Costs Cause Concern,” Dundalk Eagle, December 5, 1996.

Matt McLaughlin, “Peter Angelos Makes Bid for BethShip.  Plan Would Renew Shipbuilding at Sparrows Point,” Dundalk Eagle, December 5, 1996.

Sean Somerville, “Maritime.  3 Other Shipyard Suitors Expected.  Bentley Adds, However, That She Doesn’t Know Their Identities,” Sun, December 7, 1996.

Sean Somerville, “From Ballpark to Shipyard.  Rescuer? Baltimore Orioles Owner Peter Angelos Hopes to Buy BethShip to save Blue-Collar Jobs in His Hometown,” Sun, December 29, 1996.

Dundalk-Patapsco Neck Historical Society, Dundalk, The First Hundred Years (by the Society: Dundalk, Md., 1997).

Sean Somerville, “Manufacturing.  About 900 Jobs to Be Cut in Beth Steel Mill Closure.  Structural Products Plant Located in Bethlehem, Pa.,” Sun, January 10, 1997.

Joe Nawrozki and Rafael Alvarez, “Twilight of a Great Shipyard.  Shipbuilding: At the Sparrows Point Shipyard, Once the Source of Livelihood for 8,000 Families, Work Slows to a Painful Halt,” Sun,  January 19, 1997.

Timothy B. Wheeler, “Beth Steel ill pay Fine of $350,000.  Cleanup Could

 Cost $50 Million or More During Net Decade.  Pollution Violations.  Company Has 4 Years to Do Improvements at Sparrows Point,” Sun, February 25, 1997.

Edward F. Dice, “Turning Back the Clock.  Teacher Made Sparrows Point Elementary Memorable,” Dundalk Eagle, February 27, 1997.

Matt McLaughlin, “Agreement Requires Cleanup of Sparrows Point Steel Plant,” Dundalk Eagle, February 27, 1997.

Matt McLaughlin, “Brownfield’s Status of Sparrows Point Steel Plant Is Uncertain.  County Plans for Industrial Park Remain on Hold,” Dundalk Eagle, March 6, 1997.

Matt McLaughlin, “Talks Break Off Between Shipbuilders & BethShip Buyer.  WHX Seeks Too Many Cuts, Union Says,” Dundalk Eagle, March 13, 1997.

Matt McLaughlin, “Union Files Labor Charges Against Beth Steel & WHX.  Complaint Seeks to Halt Sale of Shipyard,” Dundalk Eagle, March 20, 1997.

Todd Karpovich, “Bethlehem Steel Tries to Improve Image.  Company Institutes New Programs,” Dundalk Eagle, April 10, 1997.

Sean Somerville, “Manufacturing.  Beth Steel May Build New Mill.  Company Considers Sparrows Pt. But May Chose Spot Off-Site.  Location Sparks Concern.  Union Wants project, But Fears Loss of Jobs If It’s Not in Baltimore,” Sun, April 30, 1997

Matt McLaughlin, “Beth Steel Enters Venture with Building Supply Company. Sparrows Point Could Be Site of Cold Rolling Mill,” Dundalk Eagle, May 1, 1997.

Larry Carson, “[Peter G.] Angelos Asks Tax Breaks in Purchase of Shipyard.  Balto. Co. Councilman Objects, Questions Need,” Sun, May 28, 1997.

Anonymous, “City/County Digest.  In Baltimore County.  Council Vote Delayed on Tax Break for Shipyard Buyer,” Sun, June 2, 1997.

Anonymous, “City/County Digest.  Baltimore County.  Council Poised to OK Bigger Enterprise Zone to Aid Shipyard Buyer,” Sun, June 16, 1997.

Sean Somerville, “Manufacturing.  U. S. Can to Shut Down Local Plant.  Sparrows Point Facility Employing 100, 3 Others in Midwest Will Close.  CEO to Be Replaced.  Closures Are Blamed on Loss of Contract with S. C. Johnson,” Sun, July 10,  1997.

Anonymous, “Joseph Patrick Lane, 83, a Shipyard Superintendent,” Sun, July 22, 1997, obituary.

Sean Somerville, “Shipyard.  Bidders for Beth Site Renew Look.  Earlier Potential Buyers Return after Angelos Talks End.  ‘That’s Good News.’  Veritas Capital, WHX Failed Before to Reach Agreement with Union,” Sun, August 6, 1997.

Sean Somerville, “Shipyard.  Bethship Workers OK Pact.  230-62 Vote Is Aimed at Keeping Sparrows Point Facility Open,” Sun, August 20, 1997.

Sean Somerville, “Buyer Signs Deal to Rescue BethShip,” Sun, August 30, 1997.

Sean Somerville, “Shipbuilding. BethShip Gets New Owner, New Name.  Veritas Capital Reportedly Pays $16 Million.  State Helps Finance Deal.  900 Union Members; Chomping at the Bit to Get Back to Work,’”  Sun, October 1, 1997.

Sean Somerville, “New Owner of Shipyard Scrambles for Business.  Comeback: Some Workers Are Back on the Job at the Former Bethlehem Steel Shipyard as Veritas Capital’s Baltimore Marine Industries Arranges  Ship Repair Deals,” Sun, October 10, 1997.

Sean Somerville, “Industry. Glendenning, Sarbanes Ask for Mill.  Governor, Senator Lobby for New Facility at Sparrows Point.  Bethlehem Steel’s Decision.  800 Md. Jobs Likely at Stake; W. Virginia, Virginia Competing,” Sun, October 14, 1997.

Larry Carson, “Development.  ‘Tremendous’ Gains from New Steel Mill.  Officials Excited by Environmental, Economic Spin-Offs,” Sun, October 31, 1997. 

Terri Narrell Mause, “Governor [Glendenning] Pledges to Support Bethlehem Steel,” Dundlak Eagle, October 23, 1997.

Sean Somerville, “New Day at Shipyard.  Sold: Veritas Capital’s Purchase of the Sparrows Point Shipyard from Bethlehem Steel Has Brought Optimism and a New Name: Baltimore Marine Industries,” Sun, November 2, 1997.

Anonymous, “Cold Rolling Mill at Beth Steel Sparrows Point [plan for new mill],” Essex Times November 6, 1997.

Jean A. Flanagan, “Sparrows Point to Get $300 Million Beth Steel Facility.  Cold Rolling Mill Seen as Boost for Local Economy,” The Avenue News, Essex, Md., November 6, 1997.

Anonymous, “Beth Steel Donates to Environmental Monitoring,” Essex Times, November 6, 1997.

Sean Somerville, “Industry. Steel Workers Give to Get a Lot.  Job Cuts OK Secures Sparrows Point Mill,” Sun, November 9, 1997.

Matt McLaughlin, “Beth Steel Merger Will Cost 400 Jobs.  Company Hopes Most Losses Are by retirement,” Dundalk Eagle, December 18, 1997.

Robert L. Ehrlich, Jr., M. C., “An Open Letter to the Bethlehem Steel Community [re closure of plate mill],” The Avenue News, Essex, Md., December 24, 1997.

Anonymous, “Steel.  Beth.  Beth Rival’s Offer Favored.  Lukens Directors Prefer Cash Bid from Allegheny Teledyne.  $715 Million vs. $650 Million,” Sun, December 31, 1997.

Sean Somerville, “Steel.  Beth Steel Wins Battle for Lukens.  400 Jobs Will Be Lost as Sparrows Point Plate Mill is Closed.  $740 Million Deal.  Allegheny Teledyne Obtains 3 Agreements, Agrees to Walk Away,” Sun, January 29, 1998.

Carl Schoettler, “For Black Steel Men, the Living Wasn’t Easy.  Documentary: African-American s Working in the Industry Not So Long Ago Found That Discrimination Was Part of the Job.  Those Who Were There Tell About It (at Sparrows Point],” Sun, February 2, 1998.

Sean Somerville, “Basic Metals.  Beth Steel Lets Mill Contract.  2-Firm Consortium Will Construct $300 Million Facility.  Jobs Coming, and Going.  Aging Facility Being Replaced at Sparrows Point,” Sun, February 28, 1998.

Todd Karpovich, “Beth Steel Awards Contract for Cold Rolling Mill.

Sparrows Pt. Rd. Company to Help with Construction,” Dundalk Eagle, March 5,


Sean Somerville, “Shipyard’s Comeback a Miracle,” Sun, March 15, 1998.

Larry Carson, “Bethlehem Steel Reaches Out to Balto. Co. Council.  Politicians Are Invited to Groundbreaking,” Sun, March 29, 1998.

Sean Somerville, “Sparrows Point Ground Is Broken for New Mill.  Steel.  At the Groundbreaking for Bethlehem Steel’s $300 Million Cold Rolling Mill, There Was Talk of Commitment But No Mention of the Cost in Jobs,” Sun, April 16, 1998.

Matt McLaughlin, “Meeting Eases Concerns about New Facility at Sparrows Pt.  Plant Would Add Minimal Amount of Pollution,” Dundalk Eagle, August 6, 1998.

Grace Cello, “Turning Back the Clock.  Eastwood Woman Remembers Sparrows Point Bungalows,” Dundalk Eagle, September 24, 1998.

Christina Radice, “Some Workers Upset over Open House at Beth Steel Plate Mill.  Event was Planned Before Closure Decision,” Dundalk Eagle, October 1, 1998.

Christina Radice, “Author Discusses Smoke-Hidden Plant at Sparrows Point [lecture by Mark Reutter],” Dundalk Eagle, October 22, 1998.

Jarrett Graver, “Sparrows Point to Modernize Tinplating Line.  New Plate Bath to Replace Sludge by 828 Tons,” Dundalk Eagle, December 17, 1998.

William Patalon III, “Basic Industries.  Steel Is Testing America’s Mettle.  Battle over Imports Could Reshape Trade Attitudes,” Sun, January 24, 1999.

Jarrett Graver, “Industry Holds 2nd Sparrows Pt. Rally to Protest Steel Dumping.”   Steelmakers Call for Quicker Legislative Action,” Dundalk Eagle, January 28, 1999.

William Patalon III,” Cold Mill, Hot Prospects.  Profit: Bethlehem Steel Expects Its $300 Million Cold-Sheet Mill in Sparrows Point to Beat Rivals by Producing a Variety of Steels in Large Quantities,” Sun, April 11, 1999.

Dennis O’Brien, “Balto. Co. Resolves to Buy Only U. S. Metal.  Council Approves Measure to Keep Steel Worker Jobs,” Sun, April 20, 1999.

William Patalon III, “Beth Steel Ups Ante at the Point.  $60 Million Outlay to Let the Mill Make Wider Slabs.  Mill to Remain Competitive.  Loss of 28c a Share in First Quarter Bigger Than Expected,” Sun, April 28, 1999.

Jarrett Graver, “Steel Recovery Bill Makes It Through House; Senate Is Next.  ITC Votes to Continue Probe of Steel Dumping,” Dundalk Eagle, April 29, 1999.

Leslie Wayne, “Big Steel’s Problems Are Home Grown.  Low-Cost U. S. Mills Play a Bigger Role Than Imports in Eroding Profits,” New York Times, April 29, 1999.

Christina Radice, “EDF Targets Sparrows Point for High Volume of Pollution.  Beth Steel Site Is Ranked Third in National Study,” Dundalk Eagle, June 3, 1999.

William Patalon III, “Recast Steelmaker.  Retooling: Bethlehem Steel Corp. is Undergoing a $615 Million Renovation of Its Sparrows Point Plant, Giving Life to a Facility That Not Long Ago Had a Doubtful Future,” Sun, July 4, 1999.

Christina Radice, “Sparrows Point: A Real Steel Town That Thrived,” Dundalk Eagle, July 15, 1999.

Marge Neal, “Well-Planned Homes Revealed Status by Proximity to Steel Plant,” Dundalk Eagle, July 15, 1999. 

Jarrett Graver, “Before Busses the Red Rocket Reigned,” Dundalk Eagle, July 15, 1999.

Multiple Authors, “Sparrows Point Special Edition,” Dundalk Eagle, July 15, 1999.

David L. Greene, Hot Steel, Cool Water. ‘We’re Making 3.6 Million Tons of Steel Each Year. It Takes a Lot of Water to Do That,’” Sun, August 11, 1999.

Jarrett Graver, “Sparrows Point Completes $100 Million Reline of Blast Furnace.  Steel Companies File Suit against Commerce Dept.,” Dundalk Eagle, August 26, 1999.

William Patalon III, “Takeovers.  Bethlehem Adds Potency to Poison Pill.  Board Action Comes Week after Learning of Possible Takeover.  WHX on the Prowl.  Suitor Is Headed by Man with History of Making Hostile Bids,” Sun, December 31, 1999.

Gary M. Garadestky, “New Scrap Handling Facility at Bethlehem Steel, Sparrows Point, Maryland,” Steelmaking Conference Proceedings, 2000 (available on-line).

Kristine Henry, “Beth Steel’s Hopes Ride on New $300 Million Mill, Sparrows Point Was Facing Choice: Renovate or Close [cold-rolled steel mill opened on April 29],” Sun, May 2, 2000.

Virginia Terhune, “Beth Steel Eyes More Redevelopment,” Jeffersonian, Towson, Md., May 25, 2000.

Gus G. Sentementes, “Sparrows Point Yard Gets Navy Ship-Scrapping Job.  BMI Will Dismantle 7 Vessels in Deal Worth $4.1 Million,” Sun, July 21, 2000.

Bob Allen, “Scrap Is Now High-Tech Operation, Sparrows Point Scrap Processing Provides Beth Steel Right Blend,” Jeffersonian, Towson, Md., September 5, 2000.

Kristine Henry, “Steel Industry.  Bethlehem Celebrates New Mill Amid Worries.  $300 Million Facility Opens as Concerns on Imports, Prices Rise,” Sun, September 22, 2000.

Bob Allen, “The Tin Line.  AMG Separates Tin, Steel Scrap to Turn Profit,” Jeffersonian, Towson, Md., September 26, 2000.

Kristine Henry, “Steel.  Bethlehem Stock Hits Record Low.  Dpi Below $3 Reflects How Cheaper Imports Hurt Domestic Mills.  Less Than the Price of a Latte.  No. 3 Steel Maker’s Shares Close at $2.94’ One Sold for $31.75,” Sun, September 28, 2000.

Bob Allen, “Russians Tour Plant to Learn U. S. Way.  Years Behind in Environmental Law,” Jeffersonian, Towson, Md., October 3, 2000.

Gus G. Sentementes, “Sparrows Point Yard Gets Navy Ship-Scrapping Job.  BMI Will Dismantle 7 Vessels in Deal Worth $4.1 Million,” Sun, December 8, 2000.

Kristine Henry, “Steel Plant’s Future Rides with New Boss.  Reiner Aims to Boost Sparrows Point Profit,” Sun, December 24, 2000. 

Joel McCord, “Bethlehem Steel to Lower Toxic Releases.  Company Agrees to Permit Endorsed by Environmentalists,” Sun, January 19, 2001.

Bob Allen, “Permit Won’t End Beth Suit.  Green Group Action against Steelmaker,” Jeffersonian, Towson, Md., January 30, 2001.

Anonymous, “City/County Digest  . . .  Film on Black Workers to Be Shown at College,” Sun, February 13, 2001.

David Nitkin, “Firefighter Training Academy to Be Built at Sparrows Point.  Industrial Park Also Pat of Deals Reached by County, Bethlehem Steel,” Sun, February 28, 2001.

Rob Hiaasen, “Forged in Steel.  The Sons and Daughters of Sparrows Point Write What It’s Been Like Growing up and Working at the Mills of Beth Steel,” Sun, March 1, 2001.

Virginia Terhune, “County Lease for Beth Steel Property Signed,” Jeffersonian, Towson, Md.,  March 1, 2001.

Jason Shultz, “Bush’s Tariffs Too Weak to Stabilize Big Steel,” Sun, March 11, 2001.

Jean A. Flanagan, “’The Heat’ Gives Us a Glimpse of Steelworkers’ World.  Anthology Tries to Break the Stereotype,” The Avenue News, Essex, Md., April 11, 2001.

Kristine Henry, “Turning Pint for Bethlehem.  Decision: Bethlehem Might Take the Lead in Saving the Nation’s Sick Steel Industry, Even If It Means Selling the Company,” Sun, April 15, 2001.

Frederick N. Rasmussen, “J. G. Roberts, 84, Beth Steel Manager and Highly Decorated World War II Flier,” Sun, April 15, 2001, obituary.

Kate Alexander, “Last Men Standing: Last 2 Residents Forced to Leave [no one left in Census Tract 45220,” Jeffersonian, Towson, Md., May 10,  2001.

Bob Allen, “Beth Steel Owns Safest Little Railroad in Country,” Jeffersonian, Towson, Md., May 22, 2001.

Kristine Henry, “Steel Maker Plans More Job Cuts.  Bethlehem to Trim 140 Salaried Workers, Seek More Savings,” Sun, June 1, 2001.

Kristine Henry, “Bethlehem Seeks Share of Any Union, LTV Deal.  Steelworkers Say Different Conditions Make This Impossible,” Sun, June 28, 2001.

Anonymous, “Bethlehem’s Troubles [editorial re filing for Chapter 11 bankruptcy],” Sun, October 16, 2001.

Dan Thanh Dang, “Beth Steel Arranges Financing.  Steel Maker Lines up $450 Million for Operating Expenses,” Sun, October 16, 2001.

Andrea K. Walker, “Beth Steel’s Filing Depresses Area.  What Are Prospects of Finding Another Job? Asks Worker, 53.  Shutdown, Layoffs Feared,” Sun, October 16, 2001.

Bob Allen, “Bethlehem Steel Files Chapter 11.  Protection Allows for Time to Plan Strategy,” Jeffersonian, Towson, Md., October 18, 2001.

Mark Reutter, “Shadow of Steel’s Lost Empire,” Sun, October 19, 2001.

Kristine Henry, “Cardin, Ehrlich Pledge to Seek Relief for Bankrupt Beth Steel.  Congressmen Visit Sparrows Point as Steel Industry Allies,” Sun, October 20, 2001.

Frederick N. Rasmussen, “The Rise and Fall of a Steel Mill Town,” Sun, October 20, 2001.

Kristine Henry, “Steel Hurt by Imports, Panel Finds.  Decision Appears to Set the Stage for Tariffs and Quotas.  12 Product Lines Cites.  Beth Steel CEO Hopes ITC’s Decision Spurs Bush to Act,” Sun, October 23, 2001.

Kristine Henry, “Job Ax Ready at Beth Steel, Union Reports.  2,000 Could be Cut, Including 800 at Sparrows Point.  Salaried and Hourly.  Proposal Was Offered as Talks Began After Bankruptcy Filing,” Sun, November 8, 2001.

Kristine Henry, “Bethlehem Will Not Pay County Taxes.  Bankruptcy Forbids Firm form Paying Property Levy.  It Paid $2.6 Million in 2000.  Baltimore County Views Amount as ‘Relatively Small,’” Sun, November 10, 2001.

Kristine Henry, “Beth Steel, U. S. Steel Are in Talks, Any Consolidation Likely to Include Others As Well,” Sun, December 5, 2001.

Kristine Henry, “Aid Needed to Survive, Beth Steel CEO Warns.  He Says Merger Bid Hinges on U. S. Paying Retirees’ Health Costs,” Sun, December 6, 2001.

Virginia Terhune, “Steelmakers Ask Government Aid with Benefits,” Jeffersonian, Towson, Md., December 6, 2001.

Kristine Henry, “Beth Steel Faces a Battle, Favoritism Seen If U. S. Picks Up Tab for Health Care,” Sun, December 9, 2001.

Kristine Henry, “4 Execs at Beth to Retire.  Company Warns Low Stock Price Could Force It from NYSE,” Sun, December 13, 2001.

Gus G. Sentementes, “Beth Will Idle 500 at Point Next Week.  Furloughs Are Viewed as a Preliminary to Job Reductions Here.  Steel Market Worsening.  ‘It Is Inevitable That We Have to Cut Our Costs,’ Ailing Firm’s CEO Says,” Sun, December 21, 2002.

Kristine Henry, “Beth Steel Is In a Battle to Stay Alive, Despite Bailout Hope, It Could Be History in Less Than a Year,” Sun, December 23, 2001.

Benjamin L. Cardin, M. C., “Steel Industry Needs Help from the President,” Community Times, December 26, 2001.

Kristine Henry, “Bonus Bid by Beth Steel.  Bankruptcy Judge Asked to OK Total of Nearly $9 Million.  Effort to Retain Key People.  ‘Not the Best Way to Spend Money,’ Union Negotiator Says,” Sun, December 28, 2001.

John R. Park, Maryland Mining Heritage Guide (Stonerose Publishing Company: South Miami, Florida, 2002), pp. 54-55.

Gus G. Sentementes, “ISG Likely to Make Bid for Beth Steel.  Steelmaker Has Found Nothing to Keep It From Making an Offer for Assets,” Sun, January 5, 2002.

Virginia Terhune, “Beth Steel Buyout Gets Union Backing.  Cleveland’s ISG Wants Company,” Jeffersonian, Towson, Md., January 14, 2003.

Kristine Henry, “Manufacturing, Anxious to Be Making Money, Too [Beth Steel awaits protective tariffs],” Sun, January 20, 2002.

Kristine Henry, “Sparrows Point Likely to Survive, Consolidation: That Is the Current Focus on the Steel Industry as Bankrupt Bethlehem Steel Corp. Looks to Secure Its Future with U. S. Steel,” Sun, January 27, 2002.

Kristine Henry, “Would-Br Buyer Tours Beth Steel.  Brazil’s CSN Meets with Officials at Point, Union Leader Says ‘This Is Not a Bad Deal.”  Plant Has Several Potential Acquirers, Spokesman Says,” Sun, February 28, 2002.

Kristine Henry, “Other Buyers Hinted for Beth Steel, Plants, European Companies, Those Eyeing LTV Included by Analysts,” Sun, March 1, 2002.

Patrice Dickens, “Workers Rally for Foreign Steel Tax.  Bush May Omit Poorer Countries,” Jeffersonian, March 5, 2002.

Kristine Henry, “Tariffs Set for Foreign Steel Goods. President Imposes Three-Year Levies of as Much as 30%.  No Bailout of Legacy Costs.  U. S. Steel’s Plan to  Acquire Beth Steel Is Apparently Dead,” Sun, March 6, 2002.

Jason Shultz, “Bush’s Tariff’s Too  Weak to Stabilize Big Steel [with photo of open hearth at Bethlehem Steel],” Sun, March 11, 2002.

Virginia Terhune, “Two Unions Unite.  Some Disagree with Merging Largest Locals at Beth Steel,” Jeffersonian, Towson, Md., March 14, 2002.

Kristine Henry, “CSN Deal Nearer for Beth Steel.  Miller Is Hopeful Union and Brazilians Agree on a Contract.  Joint Venture Is a Goal.  If Current Efforts Fail, Then Liquidation Would Be Lurking,” Sun, April 3, 2002.

Virginia Terhune, “Thumbs Up for Suitor of Beth Steel.  Union Reps Return from Brazil Plant,” Jeffersonian, Towson, Md., April 23, 2002.

Frederick N. Rasmussen, “Willie C. Johnson, 67, Unofficial ‘Mayor of Freetown,’ Steelworker,” Sun, April 27, 2002, obituary.

Kristine Henry and Karen Hosler, “Steel-Retiree Health Care Fails in Senate.  Amendment to Assist Former Workers Falls Victim to Delaying Tactics.  Measure Attached to Trade Bill.  Supporters Withdraw Plan after Vote Narrowly Misses Ending Filibuster against It,” Sun, May 22, 2002.

Kristine Henry, “With Tariffs on Foreign Steel, Sheet Metal Price on a Roll.  Stronger Economy and Weaker Dollar Also Aid Comeback,” Sun, July 3, 2002.

Kristine Henry, “Beth Steel Toiling to Forge an  Assured Future for Itself.  Struggling Company Faces a Determined Union among Its Other Worries,” Sun, July 14, 2002.

Virginia Terhune, “Beth Steel Retirees Await Bankruptcy Trial,” Jeffersonian, Towson, Md., July 16, 2002.

Laura Barnhardt, “MDE Wants to Evaluate Compliance at Fire Site [mulch plant at Sparrows Point],” Sun, August 10, 2002.

Robert Little, “Shipyard Plan Is on Course for Confusion.  Factory for Cruise Vessels Likely?  Or Dead in Water?  Darcy Set to Order 3 Ships as the Builder Turns Away,” Sun, September 15, 2002.

Kristine Henry, “ISG Deciding Whether to Bid for Beth Steel.  Possible Acquirer Was Born Out of the Collapse of LTV [International Steel Group],” Sun, November 6, 2002.

Kristine Henry, “Bethlehem Steel’s Woes Make It a Dubious Lure for Potential Buyers.  $3 Billion in Benefits for Retirees One Drawback,” Sun, November 2, 2002.

Anonymous, “Hope for Sparrows Point.  $300 Million Mill.  Loss of Jobs Offset by Long-Term Salvation of Baltimore County Steel Plant,” Sun, November 3, 2002, editorial.

Kristine Henry, “ISG Deciding whether to Bid for Beth Steel.  Possible Acquirer Was Born Out of the Collapse of LTV.  An Experienced Suitor.  It Has Stepped Around Legacy Costs Before,” Sun, November 6, 2002.

Kristine Henry, “Bethlehem Steel’s Woes Make It a Dubious Lure for Potential Buyer.  $3 Billion in Benefits for Retirees One Drawback,” Sun, November 7, 2002.

Kristine Henry, “Beth Steel to Idle 700 at Point Next Week.  Soft Demand, Holiday Prompt Shutting Down of Finishing Operations,” Sun, November 22, 2002.

Kristine Henry, “Beth Steel Says ISG Deal Would Be an Asset Sale.  Obligations to Retirees Would Remain Company’s,” Sun, November 23, 2002.

Frederick N. Rasmussen, “David M. Sanderbeck, 86, Planned Ship Launchings at Bethlehem Steel Yards,” Sun, December 1, 2002, obit. 

Virginia Terhune, “Feds Eye Takeover of Beth Pensions. 95,000 Workers, Retirees Affected,” Jeffersonian, Towson, Md., December 19, 2002.

Joe Nawrozi, “The Rise and Fall of Life and Steel at ‘The Point.’  Bethlehem Steel Corporation Sapped the Industry, Bankruptcy Brought Down the Company, and Now the Remaining Workers Fear for Their Future,” Sun, December 22, 2002.

Gus G. Sentementes, “Beth Steel’s Road to Health Gets Rockier: Getting Out of Bankruptcy Seen as Uphill Going Alone or Joining 2nd Company.  Pension Takeover Affects Talks,” Sun, December 22, 2002.

Louis S. Diggs, From the Meadows to the Point.  The Histories of the African American Community of Turner Station and What Was the African American Community in Sparrows Point (Uptown Press: Baltimore, 2003).

Amy Trexler Mantay, “An Evaluation of the Preservation of World War I-Era Planned Communities [incl. Dundalk],” (M. A. Thesis, Goucher College, Towson, 2003). 

Kathleen Johnston Jarboe, “ISG’s $1.5B Beth Bid Restores Early Retirement,” Daily Record, January 7, 2003.

Gus G. Sentementes, “Merger of Beth Steel Offered.  $1.5 Billion Sale of Assets Could Keep Mill Open, Form Biggest U.S. Steelmaker.  Bid Includes Sparrows Point.  ‘Significant’ Work-Force Cut Planned Regardless of Deal with International Steel,” Sun, January 7, 2003.

Gus G. Sentementes, “Offer Viewed as Best Likely for Beth Steel.  Some Analysts Surprised by Size of ISG’s Proposal.  $1.5 Billion is About $200 a Ton.  Creditors and Board Expected to Accept Deal,” Sun, January 8, 2003.

Virginia Terhune, “Firm May Help Beth Retirees’ Coverage.  New Plan Could Cost $40 Million More,” Jeffersonian, Towson, Md., January 21, 2003.

Gus G. Sentementes, “Bethlehem Managers Favor Deal.  Directors Are Asked to OK Sale of Assets to International Steel.  $1.5 Billion a ‘Ballpark’ Figure,” Sun, February 6, 2003.

Gus G. Sentementes, “Beth Steel Takes Aim at Benefits for Retirees.  Company Will Ask Court to OK Cutting Off Coverage,” Sun, February 8, 2003.

Gus G. Sentementes, “Beth Steel Directors OK Sale to Ohio Rival. Ailing Company’s Mills Expected to Stay Open under $1.5 Billion Deal,” Sun, February 9, 2003.

Gus G. Sentementes, “Bethlehem Retirees Shaken by Loss of Health Benefits.  Union, Salaried Workers Face Huge Cost Increases as Medical Plan Ends,” Sun, February 1, 2003.

Gus G. Sentementes, “Beth Steel Signs Deal to Sell ISG Its Assets.  $1.5 Million Cash-Debt Pact Mow Awaits Approval of Bankruptcy Court in N. Y.,” Sun, March 14, 2003.

Gus G. Sentementes, “Sparrows Point Job Cut Put at 30%.  Almost 1,000 Employees Could Be Trimmed under ISG Ownership,” Sun, March 18, 2003.

Gus G. Sentementes, “Retirees Scramble to Find Health Insurance.  Ex-Beth Steel Workers Who Will Lose Benefits Are Guided Through Options,” Sun, March 23, 2003.

Gus G. Setementes, “Court OKs Beth Steel’s Benefits Cut.  Retirees’ Health Insurance to Be Terminated March 31.  Bankrupt Company Being Sold.  Former Workers, Spouses Face High Cost of Coverage,” Sun, March 25, 2003.

Laurie Willis, “Beth Steel Retirees Go to Annapolis in Support of Health Insurance Bill.  They Lobby for Measure That Includes Coverage for Those Age 55 to 64,” Sun, April 3, 2003.

Gus G. Sentementes, “2 More Bids Possible in Sale of Beth Steel.  Firms Express Interest in Delaying Deadline.  Potential Rivals to ISG Offer,” Sun, April 15, 2003.

Gus G. Sentementes, “ISG’s Bid Seems to Be Only Valid Beth  Steel Offer.  Its Deal Appears Assured of Winning Court Approval.  2 Rivals Didn’t Meet Deadline.  Lack of Other Bids Cancels Auction Set for Today,” Sun, April 16, 2003.

Gus G.  Sentementes, “Court OKs Bethlehem’s Sale to ISG.  $1.5 Million Deal Slated to Close Next Wednesday.  Number of Joins Lost Unknown.  Former Titan of Industry Caps 19-Month Odyssey,” Sun, April 23, 2003.

Gus G. Sentementes, “Bethlehem, Buyer ISG Act to Close Deal.  Signing of Document Expected to End Tuesday.  450  Salaried Workers Depart.  Federal Agency Takes Over Pension Plan,” Sun, May 1, 2003.

Gus G.  Sentementes, “Steel Union’s Leaders OK Pact.  Bethlehem Buyer ISG Aims to Trim Labor Costs.  Job Cuts, Wage Limits Planned.  Deal May Put Firm Among Lowest-Cost Makers in U. S.,” Sun, May 6, 2003.

Anonymous, “Forged in Memory; Photographs by Algerina Perna: Sun Staff [final days of Beth Steel ownership at Sparrows Point],” Sun, May 11, 2003, pp. 1F, 6F.

Anonymous, Business Digest.  In the Region.  Beth Steel Retirees May Get Very Little as ‘Unsecured Creditors,’” Sun, May 24, 2003.

Jacques Kelly, “Paul Logan Safchuck, 90, Advocate fro Workers’ Safety, Beth Steel Riveter,” Sun, May 26, 2003, obit.

Robert Little and Gus G Sentementes, “Maryland Refuses to Record ISG Deed.  Beth Steel Purchaser Must Pay Transfer Taxes, Attorney General Says,” Sun, June 28, 2003.

Gus G. Sentementes, “Strapped BMI Lays Off 80 at Shipyard.  Sparrows Point Workers Had Just Finished Work.  Union Plans to File Federal Claim,” Sun, June 28, 2003.

Gus G. Sentementes, “State Loses Round in Collecting ISG Taxes.  Judge Rejects Md. Move to Gain Transfer Levies in Sale of Bethlehem Steel,” Sun, July 1, 2003.

Virginia Terhune, “Sparrows Point Eyed as New Sludge Site.  Dundalk Activists Behind Proposal as Option to Sollers Point Location,” Jeffersonian, Towson, Md., July 10, 2003.

Gus G. Sentementes, “BMI Shipyard Hs at Lest Another Week.  Company’s Next Hearing Is Set fro Wednesday.  Buyer or Refinancing Sought.  30 Workers Remain where 8,000 Once Toiled,” Sun, July 11, 2003.

Gus G. Sentementes, “Payouts by Point Shipyard Approved.  BMI Is in Chapter 11.  Seeks Refinancing or Sale, “ Sun, July 17, 2003.

Frederick N. Rasmussen, “Elizabeth S. McShane, 98, Artist Known for Furniture Restoration [daughter of John H. K. Shannahan, grew up in company town],” Sun, July 20, 2003.

Gus G. Sentementes, “Beth Steel Buyer, ISG, Plans to Raise $250 Million in IPO.  Proceeds Earmarked Pay Down Debt from $1.5 Billion Acquisition,” Sun, August 2, 2003.

Mark Reutter, “Before the Big Meltdown.  Beth Steel Story Hits Close to Home [announcing MPT broadcast of Bethlehem Steel, The People Who Built America],” Sun, September 1, 2003.

Meredith Cohn, “BMI Shipyard at point Is up for Sale Nov. 5.  Baltimore County Facility to be Sold in Pieces if No One Wants all of It.  Company Is in Chapter 11.  Auction House Has Received a Number of Responses So Far,” Sun, September 13, 2003.

Meredith Cohn. “Beth Steel Facility Shut after Power Plant Floods.  Storm Surge Causes Costly Repairs, Lost Work [tropical storm Isabel],” Sun, September 23, 2003.

Meredith Cohn, “Crews Work Long Hours, Hoping to Get Steel Mill Running Today.  Sparrows Point Employees Repair Big Equipment and Dry Flooded Complex,” Sun, September 24, 2003.

Virginia Terhune, “Water Rises 5 Feet in Power Plant, Steel Production Disrupted at ISG.  No One Injured but Cost Could Total Millions of Dollars,” Jeffersonian, Towson, Md., September 25, 2003.

Larry Bingham, “Playing with Heart.  Out of a Time of Great Loss, the Sparrows Point Soccer Team Builds a Winning Season,” Sun, October 30, 2003.

Ivan Penn, “Charles G. Feist Sr., 83, Beth Steel Assistant Superintendent,” Sun, November 3, 2003, obituary.

Lorraine Mirabella, “Point Shipyard to Be Revived. Barletta Willis Hopes to Create 1,500 Jobs in Next Three Years.  It Buys Yard fro $9.6 Million.  Boston Firm to Pump $200 Million into Facility,” Sun, November 8, 2003.

Virginia Terhune, “Collecting Steel Stories a Labor of Love.  CCBC-Dundalk Instructor [Bill Barry] Posts Beth Steel Histories on the Web,” Jeffersonian, Towson, Md., December 18, 2003.

Mark Reutter, Making Steel: Sparrows Point: The Rise and Ruin of American Industrial Might (University of Illinois: Champagne, Illinois, 2004).

Jeanne Bonner, “Beth Steel Ceased to Exist at 11:59 p. m. Legendary Steelmaker Passes into History,” Sun, January 1, 2004.

Lorraine Mirabella, “New Uses for the point.  Ships and More: Sparrows Point’s Buyers Envision a Large Industrial Park as Well as Producing Ships, Barges and Structural Steel at the Now Silent Shipyard,” Sun, February 22, 2004.

Virginia Terhune, “ISG Selling Land at Sparrows Point.  500 Acres of Ex-Bethlehem Steel on Market,” Jeffersonian, Towson, Md., February 24, 2004.

Meredith Cohn, “Ship Repair Yard Is Sold.  Boston Partnership Closes on Purchase of Shipyard.  New Tenants Are on the Way.  Sparrows Point Facility Site to Have Multiple Uses,” Sun, March 6, 2004.

Frederick N. Rasmussen, “Walter E. Shade, Sr., 97, Beth Steel Shipbuilder,” Sun, April 17, 2004, obituary. 

Edward Gunts, “Grit to Glitz.  The Last Remnant of Beth Steel’s Key Highway Shipyard Is Being Removed to Make Way for Luxury Condos, Marking the End of a Blue-Collar Era,” Sun, May 10, 2004.

Lorraine Mirabella, “Owners Celebrate Old Shipyard Reopening.  Industrial Park Planned at Sparrows Point Site,” Sun, June 18, 2004.

Paul Adams, “Point Company Gets Contract to Scrap 2 Navy Cargo Ships,” Sun, September 14, 2004.

Robert C. Chidester, “The History of Industry in Baltimore County,” History Trails of Baltimore County, 37 (Autumn 2004): 1-8.

Mark Reutter, “Rolling Rail at Sparrows Point,” Railroad History (Fall-Winter 2004): 33-34.

Kathleen Johnston Jarboe, “Sparrows Point Steel Plant Abuzz at Mega-Merger,” Daily Record, Baltimore, October 26, 2004.

Paul Adams, “Sparrows Point’s Owner Is Sold to Dutch Company.  $4.5 Billion Deal Should Secure Future of Former Bethlehem Steel Plant,” Sun, October 26, 2004.

Jay Hancock, “Wilbur Ross Wins $2 Billion Jackpot in Steel [seller of ISG company],” Sun, October 27, 2004.

Jacques Kelly, “William L. Wilkerson, 84, Veteran and Beth Steel Electrical Engineer,” Sun, December 16, 2004, obituary.

Jeanne Bonner, “Beth Steel Retirees to Get $100 for Lost Health Plan,” Sun, December 31, 2004.

John B. Lovis, The Blast Furnaces of Sparrows Point.  One Hundred Years of Ironmaking on Chesapeake Bay (Canal History and Technology Press: Easton, Pa., 2005).

Karen Olson, Wives of Steel.  Voices of Women from the Sparrows Point Steelmaking Communities (Pennsylvania State University Press: University Park, Pa., 2005).

Jean B. Pelletier, “Underwater Archeological Survey in the Vicinity of Masonville, Sparrows Point, and Soller’s Point in the Baltimore Harbor, Maryland,” (R. Christopher Goodwin & Associates: Frederick, Md., 2005), Maryland Historical Trust Library, Crownsville, Md. 

Carl Schoettler, “Sparrows Point During the Steel Age.  An Updated Look at the Vanished Life and Times,” Sun, February 10, 2005.

Associated Press, “Mittal Says He’d Cut 45,000 Jobs over 5 Years.  Steel Executive Would Act after Purchase of ISG,” Sun, February 25, 2005. 

John B. Lovis, “The Blast Furnaces of Sparrows Point (1887-1957). The History of Ten Furnaces and a Company Town,” in Canal History and Technology Proceedings, 24 (March 10, 2005).

Mark Reutter, “Break the Silence on Steel Sale,” Sun, March 20, 2005.

Scott Robertson, “Mark Reutter’s ‘Wilbur Ross Is Charles Schwab without Charisma,’” American Metal Market, July 17, 2005.

Jay Hancock, “Supreme Court Nominee’s Father Earned Wide Respect as Sparrows Point Manager [John G. Roberts’ father, John G. Roberts, Sr.],” Sun, July 27, 2005.

Anonymous, “John Fleming Chittenden, 83, Supervisor of Bethlehem Steel’ Ship Repair Division,” Sun, August 3, 2005, obituary.

Paul Adams, “Saving Steel.  A Labor-Management Agreement of a Type Rarely Reached in the History of Sparrows Point Plant Has Brought Innovation, and Cooperation to the Facility and a Way to Combat Threat Faced by the Industry,” Sun, August 21,  2005.

Anonymous, “Dundalk.  Author [Mark Reutter] to Speak at CCBC Program,” Sun, September 22, 2005.

Anonymous, Gordon E. Jackson, 85, steelworker,” Sun, November 27, 2005, obituary.

Stephen H. Cutcliffe, “Assessing the Costs of Management Failure [review of Mark Reutter’s book Making Steel],”,” Technology and Culture, 47 (January 2006).

Paul Adams and Meredith Cohn, “Balto. Co. Gas Terminal Planned.  Ex-Shipyard Sought for Liquid Fuel Site,” Sun, January 14, 2006.

Laura Barnhardt, “Forum Discusses LNG Terminal.  Sparrows point Proposal Draws a Crowd Mostly Concerned about Safety,” Sun, January 20, 2006.

Laura Barnhardt, “Project Alarms Dundalk Residents.  Company Proposed Liquefied Natural Gas Terminal at Shipyard,” Sun, February 5, 2006.

Laura Barnhart, “Smith [James T., Jr.] Opposes Natural Gas Plant.  Executive Voices Concerns about LNG Terminal’s Safety,” Sun, February 28, 2006, p. 4B.

Paul Adams, Emergency Energy Star.  Wall Street Wakes Up to Find Ethanol Shedding Midwest Roots and Gaining Hold as Alternative Fuel [proposal for ethanol plant at Sparrows Point],” Sun, March 5, 2006.

Laura Barnhart, “Firm to Hold Meetings on LNG Pipeline Plan.  87-Mile Project  Would Run from Dundalk to Pa.,” Sun, April 20, 2006.

Jamie Malarkey, “Dundalk Residents Blast Natural Gas Plant Proposal,” Examiner, April 26, 2006.

Jaime Malarkey, “Councilman to Take Aim at LNG Proposal.  Company Seeks Natural Gas Plant at Sparrows Point,” Examiner, May 3, 2006.

Jaime Malarkey, “Myth, Politics Surround Liquid Natural Gas Debate,” Examiner, May 9, 2006.

Allison Connolly, “Sparrows Point.  The Old Bethlehem Steel Complex Has a Shrunken Works Force That Must Compete with Its Sister Plants as Owner Mittal Seeks More Efficiencies.  Feeling Pressure for Profits,” Sun, May 14, 2006.

Anonymous, “Digest.  Meetings with U. S. Agency on LNG Terminal Are Set,” Sun, May 18, 2006.

Jaime Malarkey, “Energy.  LNG Opponents Target Legg Mason,” Examiner, May 18, 2006.

Jennifer McMenamin, “Sparrows Point LNG Plant Raises Fears.  Potential Explosions, Terror Threats, Restricted Waterway Access Concerns Residents,” Sun, June 6, 2006.

Associated Press & Bloomberg News, “Arcelor, Mittal Will Meet on Takeover Bid,” Sun, June 8, 2006.

Mary Gail Hare, “Gas Pipe Line Proposal Protested.  87- Mile Route Would Run from Sparrows Point to Pennsylvania,” Sun, June 8, 2006.

New York Times News Service, “Arcelor Rejects Offer by Mittal.  But Talks Hinted If Bid Goes Higher,” Sun, June 13, 2006.

Josh Mitchell, “Effect of Proposed Ban on LNG Sites Not Clear.  County Council Scheduled to Vote on Bill Monday,” Sun, June 14, 2006.

Allison Connolly, “Point’s Fate Tied to a Tug of War.  Mittal Might Have to Sell Baltimore County Plant If Arcelor Holds onto Canadian Steelmaker Dofasco,” Sun, June 27, 2006.

Associated Press, “Shareholders Drop Move to Block Steel Merger,” Sun, June 30, 2006.

Allison Connolly, “Point Blast Furnace Fails.  Sparrows Point Breakdown Halts Production, Forces Some Layoffs [the L-Furnace],” Sun, July 6, 2006.

Allison Connolly, “Layoffs Set at Steel Plant.  150 Sign Up; Blast Furnace Shut Down,” Sun, July 8, 2006.

Allison Connolly, “Point Nearer Restart.  Blast Furnace Output May Resume Friday,” Sun, July 15, 2006.

Allison Connolly, “Mittal Calls Arcelor Bid a Success; Point’s Sale in Question,” Sun, July 19. 2006.

Allison Connolly, “Point Named as Sale Option.  Mittal Told to Divest to Avoid Monopoly,” Sun, August 2, 2006.

Anonymous, “Arcelor-Mittal Names CEO,” Sun, August 5, 2006.

Martyn Chase, “American Workers Caught in Steel Trap,” Sun, September 19, 2006.

Laura Barnhardt, “Bill to Require Divulging of Ties to LNG Builders.  Ruppersberger Proposal Addresses Concerns over Lobbying for Liquefied Gas Facility,” Sun, September 20, 2006.

Chris Kirkham, “Steel Rises Out of the Ashes.  Maryland Plant Is Part of Global Consolidation under Maverick Indian,” Washington Post, November 4, 2006. 

Allison Connolly, “American Steel Is Hot.  Sparrows Point and Weirton, W. Va., Mills Might Attract Bids by Foreign Steelmakers Eager to Get a Foothold in the U. S. Market,” Sun, December 10, 2006.

Gary Helton, Sparrows Point: Images of America (Arcadia Publishing: Charleston, South Carolina, 2007).

Matt Assad, “Beth Steel Relic Is Eulogized [closing Martin Tower at Bethlehem, Pa., home office],” Sun, January 17, 2007.

Department of Justice, Justice Department Requires Mittal Steel to Divest  Sparrows Point Steel Mill.  Divestiture Will Preserve Competition in the Tim Mill Products Industry,” press release, Washington, D. C., February 20, 2007.

Allison Connolly, “U. S. Orders Sale of Sparrows Point.  Antitrust Decision Puts Md. Steel Plant on Market,” Sun, February 21, 2007.

Hannah Cho, “For the Workers, Caution with a Dose of Optimism,” Sun, February 21, 2007.

Laura Barnhardt, “Community, Officials Look to Life after Steel Mill Sale,” Sun, February 21, 2007.

Kate Prahlad, “Justice Department: Mittal Steel Co. Must Sell Sparrows Point Mill,” Examiner, February 21, 2007.

Allison Connolly, “Mittal Sorry about Ruling.  Steelmaker’s CEO Says Order Leaves No Choice on Sparrows Point Sale,” Sun, February 22, 2007.

Anonymous, “Getting the Point,” Sun, February 22, 2007, editorial.  

Allison Connolly, “Union Role in Steel Sale.  Steelworkers Have a  Seat at the Negotiating Table as Esmark Seeks to buy Mittal’s Sparrows Point,” Sun, April 6, 2007.

David Dishneau, “Mittal Readies Sparrows Point for Sale,” Boston Globe, May 16, 2007.

Allison Connolly, “Mittal to Miss Deadline for Sale of Point Plant,” Sun, May 17, 2007.

Allison Connolly, “$300 Extra for Steelworkers [supplement to meet cost of Medicare Part II],” Sun, May 31, 2007.